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Dental Radiation Health: Safety and Protection of the Digital Age References

American Cancer Society. (n.d.). Radiation exposure and cancer. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/medicaltreatments/radiation-exposure-and-cancer

American Cancer Society. (2012). Study examines possible link between dental x-rays and meningioma risk. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/news/study-examines-possible-link-between-dental-x-rays-and-meningioma-risk

American Dental Association. (2013). X-rays. Retrieved from http://www.ada.org/2760.aspx

American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration. (2012). Dental radiographic examinations: Recommendations for patient selection and limiting radiation exposure. Retrieved from http://www.ada.org/sections/professionalResources/pdfs/Dental_Radiographic_Examinations_2012.pdf

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Bushong, S.C. (2013). Radiologic science for technologists: Physics, biology, and protection (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Claus, E.B., Calvocoressi, L., & Bondy, M.L. (2012). Dental x-rays and risk of meningioma. Cancer, 118(18), 4530-4537.

Gibbs, S.J. (2000). Effective dose equivalent and effective dose: Comparison for common projections in oral and maxillofacial radiology. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, 90(4), 538-545.

Health Physics Society. (2007). Radiation answers: Naturally occurring radiation. Retrieved from http://www.radiationanswers.org/radiation-sources-uses/natural-radiation.html

Health Physics Society. (2012). Fact sheet: Background radiation. Retrieved from http://hps.org/documents/background_radiation_fact_sheet.pdf

Hujoel, P., Bollen, A.-M., Noonan, C.J., & del Aguila, M.A. (2004). Antepartum dental radiography and infant low birth weight. JAMA, 291(16), 1187-1193.

Iannucci, J.M., & Howerton, L.J. (2012). Radiation biology. In Dental radiography: Principles and techniques (4th ed., pp. 34-44), St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (n.d.). Frequently asked Chernobyl questions. Retrieved from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/features/chernobyl-15/cherno-faq.shtml

Lam, E., & Yang, J. (2012). AAOMR response to recent study on dental x-ray risks. Retrieved from http://www.aaomr.org/news/89564/AAOMR-Response-to-Recent-Study-on-Dental-X-ray-Risks.htm

Langland, O.E., & Langlais, R.P. (1995). Early pioneers of oral and maxillofacial radiology. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, 80(5), 496-511.

Ludlow, J.B., Davies-Ludlow, L.E., & White, S.C. (2008). Patient risks related to common dental radiographic examinations: The impact of 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations regarding dose calculations. JADA, 139(9), 1237-1243.

Memon, A., Godward, S., Williams, D., Siddique, I., & Al-Saleh, K. (2010). Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-controlled study. Acta Oncologica, 49(4), 447-453.

Mettler, F.A., Jr., Huda, W., Yoshizumi, T.T., & Mahesh, M. (2008). Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: A catalog. Radiology, 248(1), 254-263.

Miles, D.A., Van Dis, M.L., Williamson, G.F., & Jensen, C.W. (2009). Radiographic imaging for the dental team (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders.

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). (2006). Health effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII – Phase 2). Washington: National Academy Press.

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National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (2003). Report No. 145: Radiation protection in dentistry. Bethesda, MD: Author.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (2009). Report No. 160: Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. Bethesda, MD: Author.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2011). The NIST reference on constants, units, and uncertainty. Retrieved from http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html

Scarfe, W.C. (2012). Radiation risk in low-dose maxillofacial radiography. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 114(3), 277-280.

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Wahl, L.E. (2010). Health Physics Society fact sheet: Environmental radiation. Retrieved from http://hps.org/documents/environmentalradiationfact sheet.pdf

White, S.C., Heslop, E.W., Hollender, L.G., Mosier, K.M., Ruprecht, A., & Shrout, M.K. (2001). Parameters of radiologic care: An official report of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, 91(5), 498-511.

White, S.C., & Mallya, S.M. (2012). Update on the biological effects of ionizing radiation, relative dose factors and radiation hygiene. Australian Dental Journal, 57(Suppl 1), 2-8.

White, S.C., & Pharoah, M.J. (2009). Oral radiology: Principles and interpretation (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Yakoumakis, E.N., Tierris, C.E., Stefanou, E.P., Phanourakis, I.G., & Proukakis, C.C. (2001). Image quality assessment and radiation doses in intraoral radiography. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, 91(3), 362-368.