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Basic Trauma Nursing, 4th Edition References

CHAPTER 1 REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.a). Emergency department visits. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/emergency-department.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.b). Seat belts: Get the facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/seatbelts/facts.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). National hospital ambulatory medical care survey: 2011 Emergency department summary tables. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/nhamcs_emergency/2011_ed_web_tables.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). 10 leading causes of death by age group: United States, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/leading_causes_of_death_by_age_group_2013-a.pdf

International Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute (IIHS, HLDI). (2013). 2013 general statistics. Retrieved from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/general-statistics/fatalityfacts/passenger-vehicles#Crash-types

International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), & Campbell, John R. (2012). International life support for emergency care providers (7th ed.). New York: NY: Pearson.

Mir, H. R. (2011). Who is funding your trauma system? American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Retrieved from http://www.aaos.org/news/aaosnow/may11/advocacy3.asp

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.

Nance, M. L. (2014). National Trauma Data Bank 2014 annual report. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma. Retrieved from http://www.facs.org/~/media/files/quality%20programs/trauma/ntdb/ntdb%20annual%20report%202014.ashx

National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT). (2014). PHTLS: Prehospital trauma life support (8th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). (n.d.). Advanced frontal airbags. Retrieved from http://www.nhtsa.gov/Driving+Safety/Occupant+Protection/Advanced+Frontal+Air+Bags

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). (2013). 2013 Crash overview.Retrieved from http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/13WPPP.pdf

Nave, C. R. (2014). Non-stretching seatbelt. Georgia State University. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/seatb.html

Peitzman, A. B., & Schwab, C. W. (2013). The trauma manual: Trauma and acute care surgery (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Teoh, E. R., & Lund, A. K. (2011). IIHS side crash test ratings and occupant death risk in real-world crashes. Traffic Injury Prevention, 12(5), 500-507. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2011.585671

Velopulos, C. G., Enwerem, N. Y., Obirieze, A., Hashmi, Z. G., Scott, V. K., Cornwell, E. E. III, … & Haider, A. H. (2013). National cost of trauma care by payer status. Journal of Surgical Research, 184(1), 444-449. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.05.068

Wesson, H. K., Boikhutso, N., Bachani, A. M., Hofman, K. J., & Hyder, A. A. (2014). The cost of injury and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries: A review of economic evidence. Health Policy and Planning, 29(6), 795-808. doi:10.1093/heapol/czt064

CHAPTER 2 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support student course manual (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2014). ACS Trauma Program reaches milestone: 400 center verifications. Bulletin. Retrieved from http://bulletin.facs.org/2014/03/acs-trauma-program-reaches-milestone

American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma. (2012). Advanced trauma life support (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT). (2014). Resources for optimal care of the injured patient. Retrieved from http://www.facs.org/~/media/files/quality%20programs/trauma/vrc%20resources/resources%20for%20optimal%20care%202014%20v11.ashx

American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT). (2015). Position statement stressing importance of trauma center designation based upon population-based system need. Retrieved from http://www.facs.org/media/press-releases/2015/trauma0206

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). BAM! Body and mind: Infectious disease epidemiology: Lesson 1: Understanding the epidemiologic triangle through infectious disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/bam/teachers/documents/epi_1_triangle.pdf

Christoffel, T., & Gallagher, S. S. (1999). Injury prevention and public health. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

MacKenzie, E. J., Weir, S., Rivara, F., Jurkovich, G. J., Nathens, A. B., Wang, W., … & Salkever, D. S. (2010). The value of trauma center care. Journal of Trauma-Injury & Critical Care, 69(1), 1-10. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e03a21

Mattox, K. L., Moore, E. E., & Feliciano, D. V. (2013). Trauma (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Nance, M. L. (2014). National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) annual report, 2014 American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma. Retrieved from http://www.facs.org/~/media/files/quality%20programs/trauma/ntdb/ntdb%20annual%20report%202014.ashx

National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control. (1989). Injury prevention: Meeting the challenge. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(3 Suppl), 1-303.

Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). (2013). Compare the effectiveness of care delivery on improving outcomes in patients living in rural communities who experience trauma. Rural Trauma Care. Retrieved from http://www.pcori.org/assets/PCORI-Addressing-Disparities-Topic-Brief-10-0416132.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. (2006). Model trauma system planning and evaluation. Retrieved from https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/quality%20programs/trauma/tsepc/pdfs/hrsa%20mtspe.ashx

CHAPTER 3 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support student course manual (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Beckers, S. K., Brokmann, J. C., & Rossaint, R. (2014). Airway and ventilator management in trauma patients. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 20(6), 626-631. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000160

Beekley, A. C., Sebesta, J. A., Blackbourne, L. H., Herbert, G. S., Kauvar, D. S., … 31st Combat Support Hospital Research Group. (2008). Prehospital tourniquet use in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Effect on hemorrhage control and outcomes. Journal of Trauma, 64(2 Suppl), S28-7; discussion S37. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318160937e

Brisson, P., & Brisson, M. (2010). Variable application and misapplication of cricoid pressure. Journal of Trauma, 69(5), 1182-1184. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181d2793e

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nurse core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Jordan, J. (2013). Approach to the trauma patient. Merck manual professional edition, online. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/approach_to_the_trauma_patient/approach_to_the_trauma_patient.html?qt=trauma&alt=sh

King, D. R., Larentzakis, A., Ramly, E. P., & Boston Trauma Collaborative. (2015). Tourniquet use at the Boston Marathon bombing: Lost in translation. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 78(3), 594-599. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000561

Langham, M. L., Ching, K., Northup, V., Alletag, M., Kadia, P., Santucci, K., & Chen, L. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of capnography in the correction of simulated endotracheal tube dislodgement. Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(6), 590-596. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01090.x

Limmer, D. J., O’Keefe, M. F., Grant, H. T., Murray, B., Bergeron, J. D., & Dickinson, E. T. (2012). Emergency care (12th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Mattox, K. L., Moore, E. E., & Feliciano, D. V. (2013). Trauma (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Medical Disability Advisor. (2014). Brain injury. Retrieved from http://www.mdguidelines.com/brain-injury

National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) & American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma. (2013). Position Statement: EMS spinal precautions and the use of the long backboard. Retrieved from http://www.naemsp.org/Documents/Position%20Papers/POSITION%20EMS%20Spinal%20Precautions%20and%20the%20Use%20of%20the%20Long%20Backboard.pdf

Reichman, E. F. (2013). Emergency medicine procedures (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Rossaint, R., Bouillon, B., Cerny, V., Coats, T. J., Duranteau, J., Fernandez-Mondejar, E., … Task Force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma. (2010). Management of bleeding following major trauma: An updated European guideline. Critical Care, 14(2), R52. doi: 10.1186/cc8943

Stewart, J. C., Bhananker, S., & Ramaiah, R. (2014). Rapid-sequence intubation and cricoid pressure. International Journal of Critical Injury and Illness Science, 4(1), 42-49. doi:10.4103/2229-5151.128012

CHAPTER 4 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support for doctors (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Bersten, A. D., & Soni N. (2014). Oh’s intensive care manual (7th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier Ltd.

Bougle, A., Harrois, A., & Jacques, D. (2013). Resuscitative strategies in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Annals of Intensive Care, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.annalsofintensivecare.com/content/3/1/1

CRASH-2 Trial Collaborators, Shakur, H., Roberts, I., Bautista, R., Caballero, J., Coats, T., Dewan, Y. … Yutthakasemsunt, S. (2010). Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 376(9734), 23-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60835-5

de Moya, M. A. (2013). Shock and fluid resuscitation. Merck manual professional edition, online. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/critical_care_medicine/shock_and_fluid_resuscitation/shock.html?qt=shock&alt=sh

Elmer J., Wilcox, S. R., & Raja, A. S. (2013) Massive transfusion in traumatic shock. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 44(4), 829-838. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.11.025

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nursing core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Klabunde, R. E. (2012). Cardiovascular physiology concepts (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kua, J. P., Ong, G. Y., & Ng, K. C. (2014). Physiologically-guided balanced resuscitation: An evidence-based approach for acute fluid management in paediatric major trauma. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, 43(12), 595-604.

Lewis, P., & Wright, C. (2014). Saving the critically injured trauma patient: A retrospective analysis of 1000 uses of intraosseous access. Emergency Medicine Journal, June 30. pii: emermed-2014-203588, doi: 10.1136/emermed-2014-203588

Maggio, P. M., & Carvalho, C. Sepsis and septic shock. (n.d.). Merck manual professional edition, online. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/critical_care_medicine/sepsis_and_septic_shock/sepsis_and_septic_shock.html

Mattox, K. L., Moore, E. E., & Feliciano, D. V. (2013). Trauma (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Peitzman, A. B., & Schwab, C. W. (2013). The trauma manual: Trauma and acute care surgery (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Prat, N., Pidcoke, H. F., Sailliol, A., & Cap, A. P. (2013). Evolution of US military transfusion support for resuscitation of trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Transfusion Clinique et Biologique, 20(2), 225-230. doi: 10.1016/j.tracli.2013.02.003

Roberts, I., Prieto-Merino, D., & Manno, D. (2014). Mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: An exploratory analysis of data from the CRASH-2 trial. Critical Care, 18(6), 685.

Stavros, G., Gemenetzis, G., Hemant, K. M., Stavros A., Nikolaos, S. S., Stylianos, G. (2013). Permissive hypotension in bleeding trauma patients: Helpful or not and when? Critical Care Nurse, 18-24. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.org/wd/cetests/media/c136.pdf

CHAPTER 5 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). Advanced trauma life support student course manual (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Bay, E., & Strong, C. (2011). Mild traumatic brain injury: A Midwest survey of discharge teaching practices of emergency department nurses. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 33(2), 181-192. doi: 10.1097/TME.0b013e318217c958

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). Get the stats on traumatic brain injury in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/pdf/BlueBook_factsheet-a.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/get_the_facts.html

Cline, D. M., Ma, J. O., Cydulka, R. K., Garth, M. D., Handel, D. A., & Thomas, S. H. (2013). Tintinalli’s emergency medicine: Just the facts (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Copstead, L. E., & Banasik, J. L. (2013). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Curley, G., Kavanagh, B. P., & Laffey, J. G. (2010). Hypocapnia and the injured brain: More harm than benefit. Critical care medicine, 38(5), 1348-1359. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181d8cf2b

DeWall, J. (2010). Evidence-based guidelines for adult traumatic brain injury care. Retrieved from http://www.jems.com/article/patient-care/evidence-based-guidelines-adul

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nursing core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Helmy, A., Kirkpatrick, P. J., Seeley, H. M., Corteen, E., Menon, D. K., & Hutchison, P. J. (2012). Fixed, dilated pupils following traumatic brain injury: Historic perspectives, causes and ophthalmological sequelae. Acta Neurochirurgica, 114, 295-299. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0956-4_57

Katz, D. I., Cohen, S. I., & Alexander, M. P. (2015). Mild traumatic brain injury. Handbook of clinical neurology, 127, 131-156. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52892-6.00009-X

Kornbluth, J., & Bhardwaj, A. (2011). Evaluation of coma: A critical appraisal of popular scoring systems. Neurocritical Care, 14(1), 134-143. doi: 10.1007/s12028-010-9409-3

Lenrow, D. (2015). Glasgow Coma Score. Retrieved from http://www.traumaticbraininjury.com/symptoms-of-tbi/glasgow-coma-scale

Lewandowski-Belfer, J. J., Patel, A. V., Darracott, R. M., Jackson, D. A., Nordeen, J. D., & Freeman, W. D. (2014). Safety and efficacy of repeat doses of 14.6 or 23.4% hypertonic saline for refractory intracranial hypertension. Neurocritical Care, 20(3), 436-442. doi: 10.1007/s12028-013-9907-1

Limmer, D. J., O’Keefe, M. F., Grant, H. T., Murray, B., Bergeron, J. D., & Dickinson, E. T. (2012). Emergency care (12th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Maiese, K. (2014). Brain death. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic_disorders/coma_and_impaired_consciousness/brain_death.html#top

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.

Peck, K. A., Calvo, R. Y., Schecter, M. S., Sise, B. C., Kahl, J. E., Shackford, M. C., … Blaskiewicz, D. J. (2014). The impact of preinjury anticoagulants and prescription antiplatelet agents on outcomes in older patients with traumatic brain injuty. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 76(2), 431-436. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000107

Peitzman, A. B., & Schwab, C. W. (2013). The trauma manual: Trauma and acute care surgery (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ryan, C. G., Thompson, R. E., Temkin, N. R., Crane, P. K., Ellenbogen, R. G., & Elmore, J. G. (2012). Acute traumatic subdural hematoma: Current mortality and functional outcomes in adult patients at a Level I trauma center. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 73(5), 1348-1354. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31826fcb30

Verive, M., Stock, A., & Singh, J. (2014). Pediatric head trauma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/907273-overview#showall.

Wallace, D. (2015). Improvised explosive devices and traumatic brain injury: The military experience in Iraq and Afghanistan. Australian Psychiatry, 17(3), 218-224. doi:10.1080/10398560902878679

Wilberger, J. E., Dupre, D. A. (2013). Traumatic brain injury. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/traumatic_brain_injury_tbi/traumatic_brain_injury.html

Zuckerman, S. L., Kuhn, A., Dewan, M. C., Morone, P. J., Forbes, J. A., Solomon, G. S., & Sills, A. K. (2012). Structural brain injury in sports-related concussion. Neurosurgical Focus. doi: 10.3171/2012.10.FOCUS12279

CHAPTER 6 REFERENCES

Adamo, A. K. (2013). Initial evaluation and management of maxillofacial injuries. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/434875-overview

Alterman, D. M., & Daley, B. J. (2012). Penetrating neck trauma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/433306-overview#a04

Arslan, E. D., Solakokoglu, A. G., Komut, E., Kavalci, C., Yilmaz, F., Karakilic, E., … Sonmez, M. (2014). Assessment of maxillo­facial trauma in emergency department. World Journal of Emergency Surgery, 9(1), 13. doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-9-13

Booth, P. W., Eppley, B. L., & Schmelzeisen, R. (2012). Maxillofacial trauma & esthetic facial reconstruction. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Colby, K. (2013). Fractures of the orbit. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/injuries_and_poisoning/injuries_to_the_eye/fractures_of_the_orbit.html

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC Trauma Nurse Core Course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Hammond, B. B. (2013). Sheehy’s manual of emergency care (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Haraldson, S. J. (2014). Nasal fracture. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/84829-overview

Mattox, K. L., Moore, E. E., & Feliciano, D. V. (2013). Trauma (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.

Nash, D. L., & Shepherd, J. D. (2014). Hyphema. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1190165-overview#a1

Pandya, H. K., & Tewari, A. (2014). Retinal detachment and clinical presentation. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/798501-clinical

Peitzman, A. B., & Schwab, C. W. (2013). The trauma manual: Trauma and acute care surgery (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pollack, A. N. Critical care transport. (2011). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Randleman, J. B., Loft, E. S., & Broocker, G. (2014). Opthalmologic approach to chemical burns. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1215950-overview

Salinas, N. L., & Brennan, J. A. (2012). Resident manual of trauma to the face, head, and neck. Alexandria, VA: American Academy of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.

Sutphin, D. D., Lee, S., Bogdan, Y., & Lucas, A. (2013). Facial soft tissue trauma treatment & management. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2065124-treatment#a1156

Tintinalli, J. E., Stapczynski, J. S., Ma, O. J., Cline, D. M., Cydulka, R. K., & Meckler, G. D. (2010). Tintinalli’s emergency medicine: A comprehensive study guide (7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Wipperman, J. L., & Dorsch J. N. (2013). Evaluation and management of corneal abrasions. American Family Physician, 87(2), 114-120.

CHAPTER 7 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support for doctors (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Benjamin, M. M., & Roberts, W. C. (2012). Fatal aortic rupture from nonpenetrating chest trauma. Proceedings (Baylor University Medical Center), 25(2), 121-123.

Bjerke, H. S. (2014). Flail chest treatment & management. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/433779-treatment

Doniger, S. J. (2010). Bedside emergency cardiac ultrasound in children. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 3(3), 282-291. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.66535

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC Trauma Nursing Core Course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Inaba, K., Branco, B. C., Eckstein, M., Shatz, D. V., Martin, M. J., Green, D. J., … Demetriades, D. (2011). Optimal positioning for emergent needle thoracostomy: A cadaver-based study. Journal of Trauma, 71(5), 1099-1103. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31822d9618

Inaba, K., Ives, C., McClure, K., Branco, B. C., Eckstein, M., Shatz, D., … Demetriades, D. (2012). Radiographic evaluation of alternative sites for needle decompression of tension pneumothorax. Archives of Surgery, 147(9), 813-818. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2012.751

Jang, T., & Angemi, C. (2014). Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST). Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/104363-overview

Keith C., Velopulos C., Bilaniuk, J. W., Jaroslaw, W., Collier, D., Bryan, D. O. … Haut, E. (2012). Blunt cardiac injury, screening for. Journal of Trauma, 73(5), S301-S306. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318270193a

Legare, C., & Sawatzky, J. A. (2010). Dyspnea in the thoracic trauma patient: A human response to illness. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 17(1), 36-42.

Limmer, D. J., O’Keefe, M. F., Grant, H. T., Murray, B., Bergeron, J. D., & Dickinson, E. T. (2012). Emergency care (12th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Link, M. S. (2014). Pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of commotio cordis. Current Cardiology Reports, 16(6), 495. doi: 10.1007/s11886-014-0495-2

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.

Neschis, D. G. (2013). Blunt thoracic aortic injury. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury

Peitzman, A. B., & Schwab, C. W. (2013). The trauma manual: Trauma and acute care surgery (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Perera, P., Lobo, V., Williams, S. R., & Gharahbaghian, L. (2014). Cardiac echocardiography. Critical Care Clinics, 30(1), 47-92. doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2013.08.003

Serfin, J. A., & Guo, A. (2014). Rib fractures. TraumaSource: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Retrieved from http://www.aast.org/rib-fractures

Singh, V. N., & Novelli, P. M. (2013). Thoracic aortic aneurysm imaging. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/418480-overview

Soler, X., Sell, R., Maestre, J., & Ruiz-Manzano, J. (2012). Bronchial rupture by an unusual mechanism of thoracic hyperextension. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 42(5), 535-537. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.03.027

Ursic, C., & Curtis, K. (2010). Thoracic and neck trauma: Part one. International Emergency Nursing, 18(1), 47-53.

Weiser, T. (2014). Overview of thoracic trauma. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/thoracic_trauma/overview_of_thoracic_trauma.html

Yabek, S. M. Commotio cordis. Medscape. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/902504-overview

CHAPTER 8 REFERENCES

American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. (2015). Injury scoring scale. Retrieved from http://www.aast.org/library/traumatools/injuryscoringscales.aspx#spleen

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support for doctors (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Armenakas, N. A. (2013a). Bladder trauma. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/genitourinary_tract_trauma/bladder_trauma.html?qt=urinarybladder rupture&alt=sh

Armenakas, N. A. (2013b). Renal trauma. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/genitourinary_tract_trauma/renal_trauma.html

Biswas, S., Adileh, M., Almogy, G., & Bala, M. (2014). Abdominal injury patterns in patients with seatbelt signs requiring laparotomy. Journal of Emergencies, Shock and Trauma, 7(4), 295-300. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.142764

Bjerke, H. S., & Bjerke, J. S. (2014a). Splenic rupture. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/432823-overview#a0199

Bjerke, H. S, & Bjerke, J. S. (2014b). Splenic rupture treatment & management. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/432823-treatment#a1128

Christmas, A. B., & Jacobs, D. G. (2015). Management of hepatic trauma in adults. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-hepatic-trauma-in-adults

Como, J. J., Bokhari, F., Chiu, W. C., Duane, T. M., Holevar, M. R., Tandoh, M. A., … Scalea, T. M. (2010). Practice management guidelines for selective nonoperative management of penetrating abdominal trauma. Journal of Trauma, 68(3), 721-733. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181cf7d07

Cullinane, D. C., Schiller, H. J., Zielinski, M. D., Bilaniuk, J. W., Collier, B. R., Como, J., … Winne, J. L. (2011). Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guidelines for hemorrhage in pelvic fracture – Update and systematic review. Journal of Trauma, 71(6), 1850-1868. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31823dca9a

Diercks, D. B., & Clarke, S. (2014). Initial evaluation and management of blunt abdominal trauma in adults. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/initial-evaluation-and-management-of-blunt-abdominal-trauma-in-adults

Dwivedi, S., Banode, P., Gharde, P., Bhatt, M., & Ratanlal Johrapurkar, S. (2010). Treating traumatic injuries of the diaphragm. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 3(2), 173-176. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.62122

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nursing core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Galketiya, K. P., Kerr, J. N., & Davis, I. P. (2012). Blunt diaphragmatic rupture – A rare injury in blunt thoracoabdominal trauma. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 16(9), 1805-1806. doi: 10.1007/s11605-012-1884-8

Lawson, R. B., Windle, M. L., Lovato, L. M., & Shlamovitz, G. Z. (2014). Abdominal stab wound exploration. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/82869-overview

Legome, E. L., Udeani, J., & Salamone, J. P. (2014). Blunt abdominal trauma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1980980-overview#aw2aab6b2b2

Malinoski, D. (2013). Splenic injury. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/abdominal_trauma/splenic_injury.html#v973242

Mattox, K. L., Moore, E. E., & Feliciano, D. V. (2013). Trauma (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Moore, E. E., Cogbill, T. H., Jurkovich, G. J., Shackford, S. R., Malangoni, M. A., & Champion, H. R. (1995). Organ injury scaling: Spleen and liver (1994 revision). Journal of Trauma, 38(3), 323-324.

Offner, P., Stanton-Maxey, K. J., & Bjerke, H. S. (2014). Penetrating abdominal trauma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2036859-overview#aw2aab6b2b3aa

Prakash, S. V., Mohan, C. G., Reddy, V. B., Reddy, V. K., Kumar, A., & Reddy, U. M. (2015). Salvageability of kidney in Grade IV renal trauma by minimally invasive treatment methods. Journal of Emergencies, Shock and Trauma, 8(1), 16-20. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.145418

Wallis, A., Kelly, M. D., & Jones, L. (2010). Angiography and embolisation for solid abdominal organ injury in adults: A current perspective. World Journal of Emergency Surgery, 5, 18. doi:10.1186/1749-7922-5-18

CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS). (2010). Fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Retrieved from http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00368

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support for doctors (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Apparelyzed.com. (n.d.). Incomplete spinal cord injury infographic: Types of incomplete spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from http://www.apparelyzed.com/incomplete-spinal-cord-injury.html

Austin, N., Krishnamoorthy, V., Dagal, A. (2014). Airway management in the cervical spine injury. International Journal of Critical Care Illness & Injury Science, 4(1), 50-56. doi: 10.4103/2229-5151.128013

Britt, L. D., Peitzman, A. B., Barie, P. S., & Jurkovich, G. J. (2012). Acute care surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Chin, L. S., & Mesfin, F. B. (2014). Spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/793582-overview#aw2aab6b2b4

Kuntz, C. (2013). Spinal fractures. Mayfield Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE-SpineFract.HTM#.VP2pKtg5Bdg

Limmer, D. J., O’Keefe, M. F., Grant, H. T., Murray, B., Bergeron, J. D., & Dickinson, E. T. (2012). Emergency care (12th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Marcon, R. M., Cristante, A. F., Teixeira, W. J., Narasaki, D. K., Oliveira, R. P., & de Barros Filho, T. E. P. (2013). Fractures of the cervical spine. Clinics, 68(11), 1455-1461. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2013(11)12

Mattox, K. L., Moore, E. E., & Feliciano, D. V. (2013). Trauma (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. (2014). Spinal cord injury: Facts and figures at a glance. Retrieved from https://www.nscisc.uab.edu/PublicDocuments/fact_figures_docs/Facts%202014.pdf

Pollack, A. N. Critical care transport. (2011). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

CHAPTER 10 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support for doctors (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). FastStats: Accidental or unintentional injuries. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/accidental-injury.htm

Cline, D., Ma, O. J., Cydulka, R., Meckler, G., Handel, D., & Thomas, S. (2013). Tintinalli’s emergency medicine manual (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC Trauma Nursing Core Course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Ertl, J. P., Brackett, W., Ertl, W., & Pritchett, J. W. (2014). Amputations of the lower extremity. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1232102-overview

Fitzgerald, C. A., Morse, B. C., & Dente, C. J. (2014). Pelvic ring fractures: Has mortality improved following the implementation of damage control resuscitation? American Journal of Surgery, 208(6), 1083-1090. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.09.002

Gammons, M. J. (2014). Hip dislocation. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/86930-overview

Kelleher, H. B. (2013). Knee dislocation clinical presentation. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/823589-clinical#a0217

Lacy, K., Cooke, C., Cooke, P., Schupbach, J., & Vaidya, R. (2015). Low-cost alternative external rotation shoulder brace and review of treatment in acute shoulder dislocations. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16(1), 114-120. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2014.12.23068

Langdorf, M. I., Cisneros, V. M., & Rafijah, G. (2014). Replantation in emergency medicine. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/827648-overview

Limmer, D. J., O’Keefe, M. F., Grant, H. T., Murray, B., Bergeron, J. D., & Dickinson, E. T. (2012). Emergency care (12th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Mamczak, C. N., Born, C. T., Obremskey, W. T., & Dromsky, D. M. (2012). Evolution of acute orthopaedic care. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 20(Suppl), 570-573. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-20-08-S70

Peyron, P. A., Cathala, P., Vannucci, C., & Baccino, E. (2015). Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 129(2), 297-300. doi: 10.1007/s00414-014-0991-3

Rasul, A. T. (2015). Acute compartment syndrome treatment & management. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/307668-treatment#aw2aab6b6b3

Robinson C. M., Seah, M., & Akhtar, M. A. (2011). The epidemiology, risk of recurrence, and functional outcome after an acute traumatic posterior dislocation of the shoulder. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume, 93(17), 1605-1613.

Thacker, M. M., & Tejwani, N. (2014). Acetabulum fractures. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1246057-overview#a0102

Wong, E. M., Chan, S. W., & Chair, S. (2010). Effectiveness of an educational intervention on levels of pain, anxiety and self-efficacy for patients with musculoskeletal trauma. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(5), 1120-1131.

CHAPTER 11 REFERENCES

Aherns, M. (2013). Home structure fires. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved from http://www.nfpa.org/research/reports-and-statistics/fires-by-property-type/residential/home-structure-fires

American Burn Association (ABA). (2011). Advanced burn life support course: Student manual. Chicago, IL: Author.

American Burn Association (ABA). (2015). Burn incidence and treatment in the United States: 2015. Retrieved from http://www.ameriburn.org/resources_factsheet.php

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS: Advanced trauma life support student course manual (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Cameron, A. M., Ruzehaji, N., & Cowin, A. J. (2010). Burn wound management: A surgical perspective. Wound Practice & Research, 18(1), 35-40.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Carbon monoxide poisoning: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/co/faqs.htm

Cline, D., Ma, O. J., Cydulka, R., Meckler, G., Handel, D., & Thomas, S. (2013). Tintinalli’s emergency medicine manual (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Edlich, R. F., Drake, D. B., & Long, W. B. (2013). Electrical burn injuries. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1277496-overview#aw2aab6b6

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nursing core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Lafferty, K. A., Bonhomme, K., Martinez, C. V., Wiener, S. W., & Serebrisky, D. (2014). Smoke inhalation injury. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/771194-overview

Limmer, D. J., O’Keefe, M. F., Grant, H. T., Murray, B., Bergeron, J. D., & Dickinson, E. T. (2012). Emergency care (12th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Oliver, R. I. (2012). Burn resuscitation and early management. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1277360-overview

Scarisbrick, J. J., & Morris, S. (2013). How big is your hand and should you use it to score skin in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma? British Journal of Dermatology, 169(2), 260-265. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12403

Shochat, G. N., & Lucchesi, M. (2015). Carbon monoxide toxicity. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/819987-overview#a0104

Shrivastava, P., & Goel, A. (2010). Pre-hospital care in burn injury. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India, 43(Suppl. l), S15-S22. doi:10.4103/0970-0358.70720

Vadukul, K., & Nguyen, T. (2012). Burn injuries require quick identification, treatment & transport. Retrieved from http://www.jems.com/article/patient-care/burn-injuries-require-quick-identificati

Wolf, S. E. (2013). Burns. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/burns/burns.html?qt=seconddegreeburns&alt=sh#v1112839

CHAPTER 12 REFERENCES

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (2014). Car safety for pregnant women, babies, and children. Retrieved from http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Car-Safety-for-Pregnant-Women-Babies-and-Children

Barraco, R. D., Chiu, W. C., Clancy, T. V., Como, J. J., Ebert, J. B., Hess, L. W., … EAST Practice Management Guidelines Work Group. (2010). Practice management guidelines for the diagnosis and management of injury in the pregnant patient: The EAST Practice Management Guidelines Work Group. Journal of Trauma, 69(1), 211-214. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181dbe1ea

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Intimate partner violence: A guide for clinicians. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/violence/intimatepartnerviolence/sld001.htm

Chang, A. K. (2011). Pregnancy trauma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/796979-overview

Cheung, K. L., & Lafayette, R. A. (2013). Renal physiology of pregnancy. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 20(3), 209-214. doi:10.1053/j.ackd.2013.01.012

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nurse core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Hao, J., Liu, M., & Mo, Z. (2012). The symptoms get worse after pregnancy in Sheehan’s syndrome: A case report. Case Reports in Medicine. doi:10.1155/2012/271345

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2002). Should pregnant women wear seatbelts? Washington, DC: Author.

Schwaitzberg, S. D., Mahoney, B., & Newton, E. R. (2013). Trauma and pregnancy. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/435224-overview#aw2aab6b3

Vanden Hoek, T. L., Morrison, L. J., Shuster, M., Donnino, M., Sinz, E., Lovonas, E. J., …Gabrielli, A. (2010). Cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation, 122(18, Suppl 3), S829-S861. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971069

Wilkins, I., Tirol, D., Peters, B., & Bearup, H. (2010). Obstetric guidelines: Management of preterm labor. University of Illinois Medical Center. Retrieved from http://www.medicine.uic.edu/UserFiles/Servers/Server_442934/File/OBGYN/Guidelines/Preterm%20LaborGuideline%2012-2010.pdf

Zuccala, S. J., & Alvero, R. (2013). Ferri’s clinical advisor. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby.

CHAPTER 13 REFERENCES

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). ATLS. Advanced trauma life support student course manual (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

American Heart Association (AHA). (2011). Pediatric advanced life support provider manual. Dallas, TX: Author.

Bhardwaj, N. (2013). Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes. Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, 29(1), 13-18. doi:10.4103/0970-9185.105786

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC, NCIPC). (2014a). Child passenger safety: Get the facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/MotorVehicleSafety/Child_Passenger_Safety/CPS-Factsheet.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC, NCIPC). (2014b). Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/Injury/wisqars

Daley, B. J., Lee, S., & Raju, R. (2013). Considerations in pediatric trauma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/435031-overview#aw2aab6b4

Dries, D. J. (2014). Initial evaluation of the trauma patient. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/434707-overview#a3

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2012). Emergency nurse pediatric course (4th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nursing core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Gross J. F. (2011). Pediatric respiratory emergencies. Retrieved from http://airway.jems.com/2011/10/evolving-assessment

Hockenberry, M. J. (2015). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Kafadar, S., & Kafadar, H. (2015). The medico-legal evaluation of injuries from falls in pedatric age groups. Journal of Forensic Legal Medicine, 31, 52-55. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2015.01.005

Marwan, A., Harmon, C. M., Georgeson, K. E., Smith, G. F., & Muensterer, O. J. (2010). Use of laparoscopy in the management of pediatric abdominal trauma. Journal of Trauma, 69(4), 761-764. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181c81d97

Mistovich, J. J., Karren, K. J., & Hafen, B. (2014). Prehospital emergency care (10th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., & Kochanek, K. D. (2013). Deaths: Final data for 2010. National Vital Statistics Report, 61(4), 1-117.

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC). (2013). 2013 annual statistical report for the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems. Retrieved from https://www.nscisc.uab.edu/PublicDocuments/reports/pdf/2013%20NSCISC%20Annual%20Statistical%20Report%20Complete%20Public%20Version.pdf

Núñez-Fernández, A. I., Nava-Cruz, J., Sesma-Julian, F., & Herrera-Tenorio, J. G. (2010). Clinical assessment of pediatric patients with Waddel’s [sic] triad. Acta Orthopedica Mexicano, 24(6), 404-408.

Veyckemans, F. (2011). Anesthesia equipment. Pediatric Anesthesia (pp. 594-668). Shelton, CT: People’s Medical Publishing.

Vinson, L., & Greenwell, C. (2012). Prevalence of Waddell’s triad at a pediatric Level 1 trauma center. 2012 Summer Institute on Evidence-Based Practice. Retrieved from http://www.acestar.uthscsa.edu/institute/su12/documents/fri/36%20Vinson.pdf

CHAPTER 14 REFERENCES

American Psychological Association (APA). (2012). Elder abuse & neglect: In search of solutions. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/resources/guides/elder-abuse.pdf

American College of Surgeons (ACS). (2012). Advanced trauma life support for doctors (9th ed.), Chicago, IL: Author.

Beuran, M., Gheju, I., Venter, M., Marian, R., & Smarandache, R. (2012). Non-operative management of splenic trauma. Journal of Medicine and Life, 5(1), 47-58.

Blumenthal, J., Plummer, E., & Gambert, S. (2010). Trauma in the elderly: Causes and prevention. Clinical Geriatrics, 18(1), 21-24.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). 10 leading causes of injury deaths by age group, highlighting unintentional injury deaths: United States – 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/10LCID_Unintentional_Deaths_2010-a.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Older adult falls: Get the facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/adultfalls.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Hip fractures among older adults. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/adulthipfx.html

Colwell, C. (2015). Geriatric trauma: Initial evaluation and management. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/geriatric-trauma-initial-evaluation-and-management

Cutugno, C. (2011). The “graying” of trauma care: Addressing traumatic injury in older adults. American Journal of Nursing, 111(11), 40-48. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000407300.77350.03

Dries, D. J. (2014). Initial evaluation of the trauma patient. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/434707-overview#a3

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2014). TNCC trauma nurse core course (7th ed.). Des Plaines, IL: Author.

Grant, E. J. (2013). Preventing burns in the elderly: A guide for home healthcare profressionals. Home Healthcare Nurse, 31(10), 561-573. doi:10.1097/01.NHH.0000436217.56972.58

Jayaraman, S. P., & Cooper, Z. R. (2014). Geriatric trauma and critical care. New York, NY: Springer.

Kaplan, J. L., & Porter, R. S. (2011). The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy (19th ed.). Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Mangram, A. J., Mitchell, C. D., Shifflette, V. K., Lorenzo, M.., Truitt, M. S., Goel, A.., … Dunn E. L. (2012). Geriatric trauma service: A one-year experience. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 72(1), 119-122. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318241f0ba

Martin, J. T., Alkhoury, F., O’Connor, J. A., Kyriakides, T. C., & Bonadies, J. A. (2010). “Normal” vital signs belie occult hypoperfusion in geriatric trauma patients. American Surgeon, 76(1), 65-69.

Meagher, R. J., & Young, W. F. (2015). Subdural hematoma. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1137207-overview#a0199

Mowrey, N. T., Dougherty, S. D., Hildreth, A. N., Holmes, J. H., Chang, M. C., Martin, R. S., … Miller, P. R. (2011). Emergency department length of stay is an independent predictor of hospital mortality in trauma activation patients. Journal of Trauma, 70(6), 1317-1325. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182175199

National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA). (2012). Traffic safety facts: 2012 data. Retrieved from http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812005.pdf

CHAPTER 15 REFERENCES

Akinnusi, M. E., Saliba, R., Porhomayon, J., & El-Solh, A. A. (2012). Sleep disorders in morbid obesity. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 23(3), 219-226. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2011

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2014). Greater risk for surgical intervention, longer hospital stays in obese trauma patients. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140314093743.htm

Andruszkow, H., Veh, J., Mommsen, P., Zeckey, C., Hildebrand, F., & Frink, M. (2013). Impact of the body mass on complications and outcome in multiple trauma patients: What does the weight weigh? Mediators of Inflammation. doi:10.1155/2013/345702

Apovian, C., Bays, H. E., & Ryan, D. H. (2013). Managing obesity and comorbid conditions: A new era of treatment strategies. Retrieved from http://www.globalacademycme.com/fileadmin/pdf/supplement_pdf/FPIM_LR-KM.pdf

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Blythe, L., & Powers, J. (2011). Caring for our bariatric patients. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/nursingmadeincrediblyeasy/Fulltext/2011/07000/Caring_for_our_bariatric_patients.1.aspx

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Crowley, M., Brim, C., Proehl, J., Barnason, S., Leviner, S., Lindauer, C., … Williams, J. (2011). Clinical practice guideline: Difficult intravenous access. Retrieved from https://www.ena.org/practice-research/research/CPG/Documents/DifficultIVAccessCPG.pdf

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Houston, P. A. (2013). Obtaining vascular access in the obese patient population. Journal of Infusion Nursing, 36(1), 52-56. doi:10.1097/NAN.0b013e31827989d8

Jones, S. B. (2012). Airway management in bariatric surgery: A challenge for anesthesiologists. Bariatric Times, 9(2), 28-29.

Kim, M. J., Park, J. M., Rhee, N., Je, S. M., Hong, S. H., Lee, Y. M., … Kim, S. H. (2012). Efficacy of VeinViewer in pediatric peripheral intravenous access: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171(7), 1121-1125. doi:10.1007/s00431-012-1713-9

Lee, P. M., Lee C., Rattner, P., Wu, X., Gershengorn, H., & Acquah, S. (2015). Intraosseous versus central venous catheter utilization and performance during inpatient medical emergencies. Critical Care Medicine, 43(6), 1233-1238. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000942

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Navarro, K. (2014). How to improve airway control for obese patients. Retrieved from http://www.ems1.com/airway-management/articles/1957214-How-to-improve-airway-control-for-obese-patients

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Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(8), 806-814. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732

Padoto, A. (2012). Lung physiology and obesity: Anesthetic implications for thoracic procedures. Anesthesia Research and Practice. doi.org/10.1155/2012/154208

Pasley, J., Miller, C. H., DuBose, J. J., Shackelford, S. A., Fang, R., Boswell, K., … Stein, D. M. (2015). Intraosseous infusion rates under high pressure: A cadaveric comparison of anatomic sites. Journal of Acute Care Surgery, 78(2), 295-299. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000516

Rae, L., Pham, T. N., Carrougher, G., Honari, S., Gibran, N. S., Arnoldo, B. D., … Herndon, D. N. (2013). Differences in resuscitation in morbidly obese burn patients may contribute to high mortality. Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association, 34(5), 507-514. doi:10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182a2a771

Vanden Hoak, T. L., Morrison, L. J., Shuster, M., Donnino, M., Sinz, E., Lovonas, E. J., … Gabrielli, A. (2010). Part 12: Cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation, 122(Suppl 3), S829-S861.

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