← Back to Occupational Therapy References     ↑ View All References

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Improving Intervention Effectiveness

References

Abichandani, S., Shaikh, S., & Nadiger, R. (2013). Carpal tunnel syndrome – An occupational hazard facing dentistry. International Dental Journal, 63(5), 230-236. doi:10.1111/idj.12037

Ablove, R. H., & Ablove, T. S. (2009). Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in pregnant women. [Review]. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 108(4), 194-196.

Ajeena, I. M., Al-Saad, R. H., Al-Mudhafar, A., Hadi, N. R., & Al-Aridhy, S. H. (2013). Ultrasonic assessment of females with carpal tunnel syndrome proved by nerve conduction study. Neural Plasticity, 2013, 754564. doi:10.1155/2013/754564

Al-Qattan, M. M., Al-Zahrani, K., & Al-Omawi, M. (2009). The bifid median nerve re-visited. The Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume), 34(2), 212-214. doi:10.1177/1753193408089572

Alfonso, C., Jann, S., Massa, R., & Torreggiani, A. (2010). Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the carpal tunnel syndrome: A review. [Review]. Neurological Sciences, 31(3), 243-252. doi:10.1007/s10072-009-0213-9

Alves, M. P. T., & de Araujo, G. C. S. (2011). Low-level laser therapy after carpal tunnel release. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia, 48(6), 697-701. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-36162011000600012

Amadio, P. C. (1987). Bifid median nerve with a double compartment within the transverse carpal canal. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 12(3), 366-368.

Amirjani, N., Ashworth, N. L., Olson, J. L., Morhart, M., & Chan, K. M. (2011). Validity and reliability of the Purdue Pegboard Test in carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 43(2), 171-177. doi:10.1002/mus.21856

Andreu, J. L., & Ly-Pen, D. (2013). Methyl­prednisolone injections for the carpal tunnel syndrome. [Comment, Letter]. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(12), 858. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-12-201312170-00019

Anton, D., Gerr, F., Merlino, L., & Rosecrance, J. C. (2013). Normative median and ulnar nerve conduction values among a rural aged population. Work. doi:10.3233/WOR-131764

Arcury, T. A., Mora, D. C., & Quandt, S. A. (2013). “...You earn money by suffering pain”: Beliefs about carpal tunnel syndrome among Latino poultry processing workers. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9967-5

Ashworth, N. L. (2014). Carpal tunnel syndrome. BMJ Clinical Evidence (Online), 08(1114).

Ashworth, N. L., & Bland, J. D. (2013). Effectiveness of second corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 48(1), 122-126. doi:10.1002/mus.23725

Atroshi, I., Flondell, M., Hofer, M., & Ranstam, J. (2013). Methylprednisolone injections for the carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(5), 309-317. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-5-201309030-00004

Bagatur, A. E., Yalcinkaya, M., & Atca, A. O. (2013). Bifid median nerve causing carpal tunnel syndrome: MRI and surgical correlation. Orthopedics, 36(4), e451-e456. doi:10.3928/01477447-20130327-21

Baker, N. A., & Livengood, H. M. (2014). Symptom severity and conservative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome in association with eventual carpal tunnel release. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 39(9), 1792-1798. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.04.034

Baker, N. A., & Moehling, K. (2013). The relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms, postures and the fit between workers’ anthropometrics and their computer workstation configuration. Work, 46(1), 3-10. doi:10.3233/WOR-2012-1480

Baker, N. A., Moehling, K. K., Desai, A. R., & Gustafson, N. P. (2013). Effect of carpal tunnel syndrome on grip and pinch strength compared with sex- and age-matched normative data. Arthritis Care & Research (Hoboken), 65(12), 2041-2045. doi:10.1002/acr.22089

Baker, N. A., Moehling, K. K., Rubinstein, E. N., Wollstein, R., Gustafson, N. P., & Baratz, M. (2012). The comparative effectiveness of combined lumbrical muscle splints and stretches on symptoms and function in carpal tunnel syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(1), 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.08.013

Bakhtiary, A. H., Fatemi, E., Emami, M., & Malek, M. (2013). Phonophoresis of dexamethasone sodium phosphate may manage pain and symptoms of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 29(4), 348-353. doi:10.1097/AJP.0b013e318255c090

Barbe, M., Bradfield, J., Donathan, M., & Elmaleh, J. (2005). Coexistence of multiple anomalies in the carpal tunnel. Clinical Anatomy, 18(4), 251-259. doi:10.1002/ca.20086

Barbosa, R. I., da Silva Rodrigues, E. K., Tamanini, G., Marcolino, A. M., Elui, V. M., de Jesus Guirro, R. R., … de Cassia Registro Fonseca, M. (2012). Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: Design of a randomized single-blinded controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 13(248). doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-248

Bartels, R. H., Boogaarts, H., & Westert, G. (2013). Incorporation of the experience of patients in the development of a patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) for carpal tunnel syndrome. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 155(6), 1057-1067. doi:10.1007/s00701-013-1708-y

Beck, J. D., Wingert, N. C., Rutter, M. R., Irgit, K. S., Tang, X., & Klena, J. C. (2013). Clinical outcomes of endoscopic carpal tunnel release in patients 65 and over. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 38(8), 1524-1529. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.05.016

Becker, J., Scalco, R. S., Pietroski, F., Celli, L. F., & Gomes, I. (2013). Is carpal tunnel syndrome a slow, chronic, progressive nerve entrapment? Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(3), 642-646. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.08.016

Berger, M., Vermeulen, M., Koelman, J. H., van Schaik, I. N., & Roos, Y. B. (2013). The long-term follow-up of treatment with corticosteroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: When are multiple injections indicated? The Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume), 38(6), 634-639. doi:10.1177/1753193412469580

Bergquist, E. R., & Hammert, W. C. (2013). Timing and appropriate use of electrodiagnostic studies. [Review]. Hand Clinics, 29(3), 363-370. doi:10.1016/j.hcl.2013.04.005

Bland, J. D., & Rudolfer, S. M. (2014). Ultrasound imaging of the median nerve as a prognostic factor for carpal tunnel decompression. Muscle & Nerve, 49(5), 741-744. doi:10.1002/mus.24058

Boland, R. A., Krishnan, A. V., & Kiernan, M. C. (2007). Riche-Cannieu anastomosis as an inherited trait. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(4), 770-775. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.12.009

Bongers, P. M., Kremer, A. M., & ter Laak, J. (2002). Are psychosocial factors, risk factors for symptoms and signs of the shoulder, elbow, or hand/wrist?: A review of the epidemiological literature. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 41(5), 315-342. doi:10.1002/ajim.10050

Bower, J. A., Stanisz, G. J., & Keir, P. J. (2006). An MRI evaluation of carpal tunnel dimensions in healthy wrists: Implications for carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 21(8), 816-825. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2006.04.008

Bruce, B. (2013). Carpal tunnel syndrome. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carpal_Tunnel_Syndrome.png

Butler, B., Jr., & Bigley, E. C., Jr. (1971). Aberrant index (first) lumbrical tendinous origin associated with carpal-tunnel syndrome. A case report. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (American Volume), 53(1), 160-162.

Cartwright, M. S., Walker, F. O., Newman, J. C., Arcury, T. A., Mora, D. C., Haiying, C., & Quandt, S. A. (2014). Muscle intrusion as a potential cause of carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 50(4), 517-522. doi:10.1002/mus.24183

Casale, R., Damiani, C., Maestri, R., & Wells, C. D. (2013). Pain and electrophysiological parameters are improved by combined 830-1064 high-intensity LASER in symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome versus transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: A randomized controlled study. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 49(2), 205-211.

Castillo, T. N., & Yao, J. (2014). Prospective randomized comparison of single-incision and two-incision carpal tunnel release outcomes. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 9(1), 36-42. doi:10.1007/s11552-013-9572-z

Cederlund, R. I., Dahlin, L. B., & Thomsen, N. O. (2012). Activity limitations before and after surgical carpal tunnel release among patients with and without diabetes. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 44(3), 261-267. doi:10.2340/16501977-0934

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2013). Workplace safety & health topics: Anthropometry. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/anthropometry

Cha, J. G., Han, J. K., Im, S. B., & Kang, S. J. (2013). Median nerve T2 assessment in the wrist joints: Preliminary study in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy volunteers. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 40(4), 789-795. doi:10.1002/jmri.24448

Chen, S. J., Lin, H. S., & Hsieh, C. H. (2013). Carpal tunnel pressure is correlated with electrophysiological parameters but not the 3 month surgical outcome. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 20(2), 272-277. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2012.03.032

Chern, T. C., Wu, K. C., Huang, L. W., Shao, C. J., Wu, T. T., Kuo, L. C., & Jou, I. M. (2014). A cadaveric and preliminary clinical study of ultrasonographically assisted percutaneous carpal tunnel release. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 40(8), 1819-1826. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.03.003

Chiotis, K., Dimisianos, N., Rigopoulou, A., Chrysanthopoulou, A., & Chroni, E. (2013). Role of anthropometric characteristics in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(4), 737-744. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.11.017

Chmielewska, D., Skeczek-Urbaniak, A., Kubacki, J., Blaszczak, E., & Kwasna, K. (2013). Effectiveness of carpal tunnel syndrome rehabilitation after endoscopic versus open surgical release. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja, 15(5), 417-427. doi:10.5604/15093492.1084354

Cho, N. S., Kim, D. H., Kim, M. Y., & Park, B. K. (2013). Electrophysiological and ultrasonographic findings in ulnar neuropathy with Martin-Gruber anastomosis. Muscle & Nerve, 47(4), 604-607. doi:10.1002/mus.23607

Claes, F., Kasius, K. M., Meulstee, J., & Verhagen, W. I. (2013). Comparing a new ultrasound approach with electrodiagnostic studies to confirm clinically defined carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective, blinded study. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(11), 1005-1011. doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31829b4bd8

Cobb, T. K., An, K. N., & Cooney, W. P. (1995). Effect of lumbrical muscle incursion within the carpal tunnel on carpal tunnel pressure: A cadaveric study. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 20(2), 186-192.

Cobb, T. K., An, K. N., Cooney, W. P., & Berger, R. A. (1994). Lumbrical muscle incursion into the carpal tunnel during finger flexion. The Journal of Hand Surgery (British & European Volume), 19(4), 434-438.

Coggon, D., Ntani, G., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., Van der Star, R., Cooper, C., & Palmer, K. T. (2013). Differences in risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome and illness with similar symptoms but normal median nerve function: A case-control study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14(240). doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-240

Dailiana, Z. H., Bougioukli, S., Varitimidis, S., Kontogeorgakos, V., Togia, E., Vlychou, M., & Malizos, K. N. (2014). Tumors and tumor-like lesions mimicking carpal tunnel syndrome. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 134(1), 139-144. doi:10.1007/s00402-013-1901-8

Dale, A. M., Harris-Adamson, C., Rempel, D., Gerr, F., Hegmann, K., Silverstein, B., … Evanoff, B. (2013). Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in US working populations: Pooled analysis of six prospective studies. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 39(5), 495-505. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3351

Dale, L. M., & Strain-Riggs, S. R. (2012). Comparing responsiveness of the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the Upper Limb Functional Index. Work, 46(3), 243-250. doi:10.3233/WOR-2012-1467

De Angelis, M. V., Pierfelice, F., Di Giovanni, P., Staniscia, T., & Uncini, A. (2009). Efficacy of a soft hand brace and a wrist splint for carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 119(1), 68-74. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01072.x

De Franco, P., Erra, C., Granata, G., Coraci, D., Padua, R., & Padua, L. (2014). Sonographic diagnosis of anatomical variations associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, 42(6), 371-374. doi:10.1002/jcu.22118

De-la-Llave-Rincón, A. I., Ortega-Santiago, R., Ambite-Quesada, S., Gil-Crujera, A., Puentedura, E. J., Valenza, M. C., & Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C. (2012). Response of pain intensity to soft tissue mobilization and neurodynamic technique: A series of 18 patients with chronic carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 35(6), 420-427. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2012.06.002

Dejaco, C., Stradner, M., Zauner, D., Seel, W., Simmet, N. E., Klammer, A., … Quasthoff, S. (2013). Ultrasound for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: Comparison of different methods to determine median nerve volume and value of power Doppler sonography. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 72(12), 1934-1939. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202328

Demircay, E., Civelek, E., Cansever, T., Kabatas, S., & Yilmaz, C. (2011). Anatomic variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel: A brief review of the literature. Turkish Neurosurgery, 21(3), 388-396. doi:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.3073-10.1

Doring, A. C., Nota, S. P., Hageman, M. G., & Ring, D. C. (2014). Measurement of upper extremity disability using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 39(6), 1160-1165. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.03.013

Duckworth, A. D., Jenkins, P. J., Roddam, P., Watts, A. C., Ring, D., & McEachan, J. E. (2013). Pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 38(8), 1540-1546. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.05.027

Eid, N., Ito, Y., Shibata, M. A., & Otsuki, Y. (2011). Persistent median artery: Cadaveric study and review of the literature. Clinical Anatomy, 24(5), 627-633. doi:10.1002/ca.21127

El Miedany, Y., Ashour, S., Youssef, S., Mehanna, A., & Meky, F. A. (2008). Clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: Old tests – new concepts. Joint Bone Spine, 75(4), 451-457. doi:S1297-319X(08)00062-6 [pii] 10.1016/j.jbspin.2007.09.014

Elliott, R., & Burkett, B. (2013). Massage therapy as an effective treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 17(3), 332-338. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.12.003

Evanoff, B., Dale, A. M., Deych, E., Ryan, D., & Franzblau, A. (2012). Risk factors for incident carpal tunnel syndrome: Results of a prospective cohort study of newly-hired workers. Work, 41(Suppl. 1), 4450-4452. doi:10.3233/WOR-2012-0745-4450

Fernandes, C. H., Nakachima, L. R., Hirakawa, C. K., Gomes Dos Santos, J. B., & Faloppa, F. (2014). Carpal tunnel release using the Paine retinaculotome inserted through a palmar incision. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 9(1), 48-51. doi:10.1007/s11552-013-9566-x

Fitzgibbons, P. G., & Weiss, A. P. (2008). Hand manifestations of diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Journal), 33(5), 771-775. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2008.01.038

Foley, M., Silverstein, B., & Polissar, N. (2007). The economic burden of carpal tunnel syndrome: Long-term earnings of CTS claimants in Washington State. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 50(3), 155-172. doi:10.1002/ajim.20430

Fusakul, Y., Aranyavalai, T., Saensri, P., & Thiengwittayaporn, S. (2014). Low-level laser therapy with a wrist splint to treat carpal tunnel syndrome: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Lasers in Medical Science, 29(3), 1279-1287. doi:10.1007/s10103-014-1527-2

Gabel, C. P., Michener, L. A., Burkett, B., & Neller, A. (2006). The Upper Limb Functional Index: Development and determination of reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Journal of Hand Therapy, 19(3), 328-348. doi:10.1197/j.jht.2006.04.001

Gabel, C. P., Yelland, M., Melloh, M., & Burkett, B. (2009). A modified QuickDASH-9 provides a valid outcome instrument for upper limb function. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 10(161). doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-161

Garcia, P. P., & Campos, J. A. (2013). Risk of musculoskeletal disorders in upper limbs in dental students: Concordance of different methods for estimation of body angle. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 24(5), 562-566. doi:10.4103/0970-9290.123367

Garg, A., & Kapellusch, J. M. (2011). Job analysis techniques for distal upper extremity disorders. Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 7(1), 149-196.

Gehrmann, S., Tang, J., Kaufmann, R. A., Goitz, R. J., Windolf, J., & Li, Z. M. (2008). Variability of precision pinch movements caused by carpal tunnel syndrome. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 33(7), 1069-1075. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2008.02.030

Gouvas, H. (2010). Carpal tunnel syndrome operation. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACarpal_Tunnel_Syndrome%2C_Operation.jpg

Gray, H. (1918a). Anatomy of the human body. Lea & Febiger. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray422.png

Gray, H. (1918b). Anatomy of the human body. Lea & Febiger. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray423.png

Gray, H. (1918c). Anatomy of the human body. Lea & Febiger. Derived from image obtained at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray812.png

Gray, H. (1918d). Anatomy of the human body. Lea & Febiger. Derived from image obtained at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray814.png

Gulabi, D., Cecen, G., Guclu, B., & Cecen, A. (2014). Carpal tunnel release in patients with diabetes result in poorer outcome in long-term study. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, 24(7), 1181-1184. doi:10.1007/s00590-014-1418-z

Gupta, S., Tewari, A. K., Nair, V., & Gupta, A. (2013). Reliability of motor parameters for follow-up after local steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, 4(4), 392-396. doi:10.4103/0976-3147.120233

Gurcay, E., Unlu, E., Gurcay, A. G., Tuncay, R., & Cakci, A. (2012). Assessment of phonophoresis and iontophoresis in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology International, 32(3), 717-722. doi:10.1007/s00296-010-1706-9

Guven, S. C., Calskan, A., Yasrebi, S., & Ozcakar, L. (2013). Ultrasound imaging of median and ulnar nerves after carpal tunnel surgery: Healing or else? American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(11), 1035-1036. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e31829e759d

Hall, B., Lee, H. C., Fitzgerald, H., Byrne, B., Barton, A., & Lee, A. H. (2013). Investigating the effectiveness of full-time wrist splinting and education in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(4), 448-459. doi:10.5014/ajot.2013.006031

Hansen, T. B., & Majeed, H. G. (2014). Endoscopic carpal tunnel release. Hand Clinics, 30(1), 47-53. doi:10.1016/j.hcl.2013.08.018

Harris-Adamson, C., Eisen, E. A., Dale, A. M., Evanoff, B., Hegmann, K. T., Thiese, M. S., … Rempel, D. (2013). Personal and workplace psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: A pooled study cohort. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(8), 529-537. doi:10.1136/oemed-2013-101365

Harris-Adamson, C., Eisen, E. C., Dale, A. M., Evanoff, B., Hegmann, K. T., Thiese, M. S., … Rempel, D. (2014). Personal and workplace psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: A pooled study cohort: Author response. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71(4), 303-304. doi:10.1136/oemed-2013-102070

Hashempur, M. H., Homayouni, K., Ashraf, A., Salehi, A., Taghizadeh, M., & Heydari, M. (2014). Effect of Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) oil on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(43). doi:10.1186/2008-2231-22-43

Hsu, H. Y., Kuo, L. C., Kuo, Y. L., Chiu, H. Y., Jou, I. M., Wu, P. T., & Su, F. C. (2013). Feasibility of a novel functional sensibility test as an assisted examination for determining precision pinch performance in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. PLOS ONE, 8(8), e72064. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072064

Hsu, H. Y., Kuo, Y. L., Jou, I. M., Su, F. C., Chiu, H. Y., & Kuo, L. C. (2014). Diagnosis from functional perspectives: Usefulness of a manual tactile test for predicting precision pinch performance and disease severity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(4), 717-725. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2013.11.017

Hudak, P. L., Amadio, P. C., & Bombardier, C., Beaton, D., Cole, D., Davis, A., … Wright, J. (1996). Development of an upper extremity outcome measure: The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [corrected]). American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 29(6), 602-608. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199606)29:6<602::AID-AJIM4>3.0.CO;2-L

Hussain, G., Rizvi, S. A., Singhal, S., Zubair, M., & Ahmad, J. (2014). Cross sectional study to evaluate the effect of duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the nerve conduction velocity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 8(1), 48-52. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2013.02.003

Iuliano, S. L., & Laws, E. R., Jr. (2014). Recognizing the clinical manifestations of acromegaly: Case studies. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 26(3), 136-142. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12076

Jabaley, M. E. (1978). Personal observations on the role of the lumbrical muscles in carpal tunnel syndrome. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 3(1), 82-84.

Jain, N. B., Higgins, L. D., Losina, E., Collins, J., Blazar, P. E., & Katz, J. N. (2014). Epidemiology of musculoskeletal upper extremity ambulatory surgery in the United States. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 15(4). doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-4

Janga, D., & Akinfenwa, O. (2012). Work-related repetitive strain injuries amongst practitioners of obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound worldwide. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 286(2), 353-356. doi:10.1007/s00404-012-2306-6

Jarvik, J. G., Comstock, B. A., Heagerty, P. J., Haynor, D. R., Fulton-Kehoe, D., Kliot, M., & Franklin, G. M. (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging compared with electrodiagnostic studies in patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome: Predicting symptoms, function, and surgical benefit at 1 year. Journal of Neurosurgery, 108(3), 541-550. doi:10.3171/JNS/2008/108/3/0541

Joshi, V. S., & Bellad, A. S. (2011). Effect of yogic exercises on symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of upper limbs among computer users: A randomised controlled trial. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 65(10), 424-428. doi:10.4103/0019-5359.109256

Kamolz, L. P., Beck, H., Haslik, W., Hogler, R., Rab, M., Schrogendorfer, K. F., & Frey, M. (2004). Carpal tunnel syndrome: A question of hand and wrist configurations? The Journal of Hand Surgery (British & European Volume), 29(4), 321-324. doi:10.1016/j.jhsb.2003.09.010

Karadag, O., Kalyoncu, U., Akdogan, A., Karadag, Y. S., Bilgen, S. A., Ozbakir, S., … Calguneri, M. (2012). Sonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: Prevalence and correlation with disease activity. Rheumatology International, 32(8), 2313-2319. doi:10.1007/s00296-011-1957-0

Karatay, S., Aygul, R., Melikoglu, M. A., Yildirim, K., Ugur, M., Erdal, A., … Senel, K. (2009). The comparison of phonophoresis, iontophoresis and local steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome treatment. Joint Bone Spine, 76(6), 719-721. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2009.02.008

Kasius, K. M., Claes, F., Meulstee, J., & Verhagen, W. I. (2014). Bifid median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome: Do we need to know? Muscle & Nerve. doi:10.1002/mus.24234

Kerasnoudis, A. (2012). Elongated muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficial causing carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 7(3), 333-334. doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9435-z

Khosrawi, S., & Maghrouri, R. (2012). The prevalence and severity of carpal tunnel syndrome during pregnancy. Advanced Biomedical Research, 1(43). doi:10.4103/2277-9175.100143

Klena, J. C., & Beck, J. D. (2013). In reply. [Comment, Letter]. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 38(6), 1265-1266. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.03.058

Koca, I., Boyaci, A., Tutoglu, A., Ucar, M., & Kocaturk, O. (2014). Assessment of the effectiveness of interferential current therapy and TENS in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled study. Rheumatology International, 34(12). doi:10.1007/s00296-014-3005-3

Kocyigit, I., Unal, A., Guney, A., Mavili, E., Deniz, K., Kocyigit, M., … Oymak, O. (2013). Carpal tunnel release surgery and venous hypertension in early hemodialysis patients without amyloid deposits. ScientificWorldJournal, 2013, 481348. doi:10.1155/2013/481348

Korstanje, J. W., Scheltens-De Boer, M., Blok, J. H., Amadio, P. C., Hovius, S. E., Stam, H. J., & Selles, R. W. (2012). Ultrasonographic assessment of longitudinal median nerve and hand flexor tendon dynamics in carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 45(5), 721-729. doi:10.1002/mus.23246

Korstanje, J. W., Selles, R. W., Stam, H. J., Hovius, S. E., & Bosch, J. G. (2010). Development and validation of ultrasound speckle tracking to quantify tendon displacement. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(7), 1373-1379. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.01.001

Kuhlman, K. A., & Hennessey, W. J. (1997). Sensitivity and specificity of carpal tunnel syndrome signs. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76(6), 451-457.

Lanz, U. (1977). Anatomical variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 2(1), 44-53.

Larsen, M. B., Sorensen, A. I., Crone, K. L., Weis, T., & Boeckstyns, M. E. (2013). Carpal tunnel release: A randomized comparison of three surgical methods. The Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume), 38(6), 646-650. doi:10.1177/1753193412475247

Lawrence, R. C., Felson, D. T., Helmick, C. G., Arnold, L. M., Choi, H., Deyo, R. A., … Wolfe, F. (2008). Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 58(1), 26-35. doi:10.1002/art.23176

Lazovic, M., Ilic-Stojanovic, O., Kocic, M., Zivkovic, V., Hrkovic, M., & Radosavljevic, N. (2014). Placebo-controlled investigation of low-level laser therapy to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 32(6), 336-344. doi:10.1089/pho.2013.3563

LeBlanc, K. E., & Cestia, W. (2011). Carpal tunnel syndrome. American Family Physician, 83(8), 952-958.

Leite, J. C., Jerosch-Herold, C., & Song, F. (2006). A systematic review of the psychometric properties of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 7(78). doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-78

Levine, D. W., Simmons, B. P., Koris, M. J., Daltroy, L. H., Hohl, G. G., Fossel, A. H., & Katz, J. N. (1993). A self-administered questionnaire for the assessment of severity of symptoms and functional status in carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume), 75(11), 1585-1592.

Lim, P. G., Tan, S., & Ahmad, T. S. (2008). The role of wrist anthropometric measurement in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. The Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume), 33(5), 645-647. doi:10.1177/1753193408093326

Liong, K., Lahiri, A., Lee, S., Chia, D., Biswas, A., & Lee, H. P. (2013). Mid-motion deformation of median nerve during finger flexion: A new insight into the dynamic aetiology of carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand Surgery, 18(2), 193-202. doi:10.1142/S0218810413500238

Liong, K., Lahiri, A., Lee, S., Chia, D., Biswas, A., & Lee, H. P. (2014). Predominant patterns of median nerve displacement and deformation during individual finger motion in early carpal tunnel syndrome. Ultrasound Medicine & Biology, 40(8), 1810-1818. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.02.024

Louie, D., Earp, B., & Blazar, P. (2012). Long-term outcomes of carpal tunnel release: A critical review of the literature. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 7(3), 242-246. doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9429-x

Luckhaupt, S. E., Dahlhamer, J. M., Ward, B. W., Sweeney, M. H., Sestito, J. P., & Calvert, G. M. (2013). Prevalence and work-relatedness of carpal tunnel syndrome in the working population, United States, 2010 National Health Interview Survey. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56(6), 615-624. doi:10.1002/ajim.22048

Madenci, E., Altindag, O., Koca, I., Yilmaz, M., & Gur, A. (2012). Reliability and efficacy of the new massage technique on the treatment in the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Rheumatology International, 32(10), 3171-3179. doi:10.1007/s00296-011-2149-7

Manente, G., Melchionda, D., Staniscia, T., D’Archivio, C., Mazzone, V., & Macarini, L. (2012). Changes in the carpal tunnel while wearing the Manu® soft hand brace: A sonographic study. The Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume), 38(1), 57-60. doi:10.1177/1753193412446112

Marangoni, A. H. (2010). Effects of intermittent stretching exercises at work on musculoskeletal pain associated with the use of a personal computer and the influence of media on outcomes. Work, 36(1), 27-37. doi:10.3233/WOR-2010-1004

Marquardt, T. L., Nataraj, R., Evans, P. J., Seitz, W. H., Jr., & Li, Z. M. (2014). Carpal tunnel syndrome impairs thumb opposition and circumduction motion. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 472, 2526-2533. doi:10.1007/s11999-014-3651-5

Marshall, S., Tardif, G., & Ashworth, N. (2007). Local corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007(2). CD001554. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001554.pub2

Marx, R. G., Bombardier, C., & Wright, J. G. (1999). What do we know about the reliability and validity of physical examination tests used to examine the upper extremity? The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 24(1), 185-193. doi:S0363-5023(99)26306-X [pii]10.1053/jhsu.1999.jhsu24a0185

Marx, R. G., Hudak, P. L., Bombardier, C., Graham, B., Goldsmith, C., & Wright, J. G. (1998). The reliability of physical examination for carpal tunnel syndrome. The Journal of Hand Surgery (British & European Volume), 23(4), 499-502. doi:S0266-7681(98)80132-0 [pii]

Meals, R. A. (2013). Phonophoresis versus placebo for carpal tunnel syndrome. [Comment, Letter]. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 29(10), 924. doi:10.1097/AJP.0b013e318285bb43

Mediouni, Z., de Roquemaurel, A., Dumontier, C., Becour, B., Garrabe, H., Roquelaure, Y., & Descatha, A. (2014). Is carpal tunnel syndrome related to computer exposure at work? A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(2), 204-208. doi:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000080

Mogk, J. P., & Keir, P. J. (2008). Wrist and carpal tunnel size and shape measurements: Effects of posture. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 23(9), 1112-1120. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.05.009

Monacelli, G., Rizzo, M. I., Spagnoli, A. M., Pardi, M., & Irace, S. (2008). The pillar pain in the carpal tunnel’s surgery. Neurogenic inflammation? A new therapeutic approach with local anaesthetic. Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences, 52(1), 11-15.

Mondelli, M., Aretini, A., Ginanneschi, F., Greco, G., & Mattioli, S. (2014). Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome: A case-control study. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 338(1-2), 207-213. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2014.01.012

Mondelli, M., Filippou, G., Gallo, A., & Frediani, B. (2008). Diagnostic utility of ultrasonography versus nerve conduction studies in mild carpal tunnel syndrome. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 59(3), 357-366. doi:10.1002/art.23317

Mondelli, M., Passero, S., & Giannini, F. (2001). Provocative tests in different stages of carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 103(3), 178-183. doi:S0303-8467(01)00140-8 [pii]

Mondelli, M., Rossi, S., Monti, E., Aprile, I., Caliandro, P., Pazzaglia, C., … Padua, L. (2007). Long term follow-up of carpal tunnel syndrome during pregnancy: A cohort study and review of the literature. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 47(6), 259-271.

Nadar, M. S., Dashti, M. H., & Cherian, J. (2013). Finger position alters the median nerve properties within the carpal tunnel: A pre-post MRI comparison study. PLOS ONE, 8(11), e79273. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079273

Nataraj, R., Evans, P. J., Seitz, W. H., Jr., & Li, Z. M. (2014). Pathokinematics of precision pinch movement associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 32(6), 786-792. doi:10.1002/jor.22600

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2014). Ergonomics pyramid. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/controlhazards.html

O’Connor, D., Page, M. J., Marshall, S. C., & Massy-Westropp, N. (2012). Ergonomic positioning or equipment for treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(1), CD009600. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009600

Okamura, A., Meirelles, L. M., Fernandes, C. H., Raduan Neto, J., Dos Santos, J. B., & Faloppa, F. (2014). Evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome treated by endoscopic technique. Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, 22(1), 29-33. doi:10.1590/S1413-78522014000100005

OpenStax College. (2013). Carpal tunnel. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpal_tunnel#mediaviewer/File:815_The_Carpal_Tunnel.jpg

Padua, L., Aprile, I., Caliandro, P., Carboni, T., Meloni, A., Massi, S., … Tonali, P. (2001). Symptoms and neurophysiological picture of carpal tunnel syndrome in pregnancy. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112(10), 1946-1951.

Padua, L., Di Pasquale, A., Pazzaglia, C., Liotta, G. A., Librante, A., & Mondelli, M. (2010). Systematic review of pregnancy-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 42(5), 697-702. doi:10.1002/mus.21910

Page, M. J., Massy-Westropp, N., O’Connor, D., & Pitt, V. (2012). Splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(7), CD010003. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010003

Page, M. J., O’Connor, D., Pitt, V., & Massy-Westropp, N. (2012). Exercise and mobilisation interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(6), CD009899. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009899

Page, M. J., O’Connor, D., Pitt, V., & Massy-Westropp, N. (2013). Therapeutic ultrasound for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(3), CD009601. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009601.pub2

Papathanasiou, E. S. (2014). Electrodiagnosis and ultrasound: Friends or foes? Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(6), 1079-1080. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.11.032

Peters, S., Page, M. J., Coppieters, M. W., Ross, M., & Johnston, V. (2013). Rehabilitation following carpal tunnel release. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(6), CD004158. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004158.pub2

Peterson, C. A., Wacker, C. A., Phelan, T. L., Blume, M. K., & Tucker, R. P. (2013). Anatomical differences in the shape of the male and female carpal tunnels. Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy, 37(3), 108-112. doi:10.1097/JWH.0000000000000001.

Phalen, G. S. (1966). The carpal-tunnel syndrome. Seventeen years’ experience in diagnosis and treatment of six hundred fifty-four hands. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume), 48(2), 211-228.

Pierre-Jerome, C., Smitson, R. D., Jr., Shah, R. K., Moncayo, V., Abdelnoor, M., & Terk, M. R. (2010). MRI of the median nerve and median artery in the carpal tunnel: Prevalence of their anatomical variations and clinical significance. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 32(3), 315-322. doi:10.1007/s00276-009-0600-1

Povlsen, B., Bashir, M., & Wong, F. (2014). Long-term result and patient reported outcome of wrist splint treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, 48(3), 175-178. doi:10.3109/2000656X.2013.837392

Prime, M. S., Palmer, J., Khan, W. S., & Goddard, N. J. (2010). Is there light at the end of the tunnel? Controversies in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 5(4), 354-360. doi:10.1007/s11552-010-9263-y

Pullopdissakul, S., Ekpanyaskul, C., Taptagaporn, S., Bundhukul, A., & Thepchatri, A. (2013). Upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders: Prevalence and associated ergonomic factors in an electronic assembly factory. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. doi:10.2478/s13382-013-0150-y

Radecki, P. (1994). A gender specific wrist ratio and the likelihood of a median nerve abnormality at the carpal tunnel. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 73(3), 157-162.

Rempel, D., Evanoff, B., Amadio, P. C., de Krom, M., Franklin, G., Franzblau, A., … Pransky, G. (1998). Consensus criteria for the classification of carpal tunnel syndrome in epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Public Health, 88(10), 1447-1451.

Rodriguez-Niedenfuhr, M., Vazquez, T., Parkin, I., Logan, B., & Sanudo, J. R. (2002). Martin-Gruber anastomosis revisited. Clinical Anatomy, 15(2), 129-134. doi:10.1002/ca.1107

Roll, S. C., Case-Smith, J., & Evans, K. D. (2011). Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography vs. electromyography in carpal tunnel syndrome: A systematic review of literature. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 37(10), 1539-1553. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2011.06.011

Roll, S. C., & Evans, K. D. (2011). Sonographic representation of bifid median nerve and persistent median artery. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 27(2), 89-94.

Roll, S. C., Evans, K. D., Li, X., Freimer, M., & Sommerich, C. M. (2011). Screening for carpal tunnel syndrome using sonography. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 30(12), 1657-1667.

Romeo, P., d’Agostino, M. C., Lazzerini, A., & Sansone, V. C. (2011). Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in pillar pain after carpal tunnel release: A preliminary study. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 37(10), 1603-1608. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2011.07.002

Rouq, F. A., Ahmed, T. S., Meo, I. M., Al-Drees, A. M., & Meo, S. A. (2014). Distribution of clinical symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 24(1), 30-33. doi:01.2014/JCPSP.3033

Rozali, Z. I., Noorman, F. M., De Cruz, P. K., Feng, Y. K., Razab, H. W., Sapuan, J., … Sikkandar, F. M. (2012). Impact of carpal tunnel syndrome on the expectant woman’s life. Asia Pacific Family Medicine, 11(1). doi:10.1186/1447-056X-11-1

Rucker, N., & Moore, J. S. (2002). Predictive validity of the strain index in manufacturing facilities. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 17(1), 63-73.

Salerno, D. F., Franzblau, A., Werner, R. A., Chung, K. C., Schultz, J. S., Becker, M. P., & Armstrong, T. J. (2000). Reliability of physical examination of the upper extremity among keyboard operators. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 37(4), 423-430. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(200004)37:4<423::AID-AJIM12>3.0.CO;2-W [pii]

Sapuan, J., Yam, K. F., Noorman, M. F., De Cruz, P. K., Abdul Razab, W. N., Rozali, Z. I., … Singh, R. (2012). Carpal tunnel syndrome in pregnancy – You need to ask! Singapore Medical Journal, 53(10), 671-675.

Schmid, A. B., Elliott, J. M., Strudwick, M. W., Little, M., & Coppieters, M. W. (2012). Effect of splinting and exercise on intraneural edema of the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome – An MRI study to reveal therapeutic mechanisms. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 30(8), 1343-1350. doi:10.1002/jor.22064

Schultz, R. J., Endler, P. M., & Huddleston, H. D. (1973). Anomalous median nerve and an anomalous muscle belly of the first lumbrical associated with carpal-tunnel syndrome. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume), 55(8), 1744-1746.

Seok, H., & Kim, S. H. (2013). The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy vs. local steroid injection for management of carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 92(4), 327-334. doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31826edc7b

Shanahan, C. J., Vi, P., Salas, E. A., Reider, V. L., Hochman, L. M., & Moore, A. E. (2013). A comparison of RULA, REBA and Strain Index to four psychophysical scales in the assessment of non-fixed work. Work, 45(3), 367-378. doi:10.3233/WOR-121540

Shi, Q., & MacDermid, J. C. (2011). Is surgical intervention more effective than non-surgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome? A systematic review. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 6(17). doi:10.1186/1749-799X-6-17

Shin, E. K., Bachoura, A., Jacoby, S. M., Chen, N. C., & Osterman, A. L. (2012). Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome by members of the American Association for Hand Surgery. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 7(4), 351-356. doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9455-8

Shiri, R., Heliovaara, M., Moilanen, L., Viikari, J., Liira, H., & Viikari-Juntura, E. (2011). Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 12(80). doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-80

Slobogean, G. P., & Slobogean, B. L. (2011). Measuring shoulder injury function: Common scales and checklists. Injury, 42(3), 248-252. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2010.11.046

Soltani, A. M., Allan, B. J., Best, M. J., Mir, H. S., & Panthaki, Z. J. (2013). A systematic review of the literature on the outcomes of treatment for recurrent and persistent carpal tunnel syndrome. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 132(1), 114-121. doi:10.1097/PRS.0b013e318290faba

Soltani, A. M., Allan, B. J., Best, M. J., Mir, H. S., & Panthaki, Z. J. (2014). Revision decompression and collagen nerve wrap for recurrent and persistent compression neuropathies of the upper extremity. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 72(5), 572-578. doi:10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182956475

Soltani, A. M., Peric, M., Francis, C. S., Nguyen, T. T., Chan, L. S., Ghiassi, A., … Wong, A. K. (2012). The variation in the absence of the palmaris longus in a multiethnic population of the United States: An epidemiological study. Plastic Surgery International, 2012, 282959. doi:10.1155/2012/282959

Soyupek, F., Kutluhan, S., Uslusoy, G., Ilgun, E., Eris, S., & Askin, A. (2012). The efficacy of phonophoresis on electrophysiological studies of the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Rheumatology International, 32(10), 3235-3242. doi:10.1007/s00296-011-2171-9

Su, P. H., Chen, W. S., Wang, T. G., & Liang, H. W. (2013). Correlation between subclinical median neuropathy and the cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the wrist. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 39(6), 975-980. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.01.001

Szabo, R. M., & Pettey, J. (1994). Bilateral median nerve bifurcation with an accessory compartment within the carpal tunnel. The Journal of Hand Surgery (British & European Volume), 19(1), 22-23.

Tai, T. W., Wu, C. Y., Su, F. C., Chern, T. C., & Jou, I. M. (2012). Ultrasonography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 38(7), 1121-1128. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2012.02.026

Tarallo, M., Fino, P., Sorvillo, V., Parisi, P., & Scuderi, N. (2014). Comparative analysis between minimal access versus traditional accesses in carpal tunnel syndrome: A perspective randomised study. Journal of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 67(2), 237-243. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2013.10.033

Thomsen, J. F., Gerr, F., & Atroshi, I. (2008). Carpal tunnel syndrome and the use of computer mouse and keyboard: A systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9(134).

Tinel, J. (2005). “Tingling” signs with peripheral nerve injuries. [First published in 1915]. The Journal of Hand Surgery (British & European Volume), 30(1), 87-89. doi:S0266-7681(04)00292-X [pii] 10.1016/j.jhsb.2004.10.007

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (n.d.). Occupational Injuries/Illnesses and Fatal Injuries Profiles. Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov/gqt

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work, 2012. (USDL Report Number: 13-2257). Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/osh2_11262013.htm

Vahi, P. S., Kals, M., Koiv, L., & Braschinsky, M. (2014). Preoperative corticosteroid injections are associated with worse long-term outcome of surgical carpal tunnel release. Acta Orthopaedica, 85(1), 102-106. doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.867781

Valdes, K., & LaStayo, P. (2013). The value of provocative tests for the wrist and elbow: A literature review. Journal of Hand Therapy, 26(1), 32-42; quiz 43. doi:10.1016/j.jht.2012.08.005

van den Heuvel, S. G., van der Beek, A. J., Blatter, B. M., Hoogendoorn, W. E., & Bongers, P. M. (2005). Psychosocial work characteristics in relation to neck and upper limb symptoms. Pain, 114(1-2), 47-53. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2004.12.008

Vanderschueren, G. A., Meys, V. E., & Beekman, R. (2014). Doppler sonography for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: A critical review. Muscle & Nerve, 50(2), 159-163. doi:10.1002/mus.24241

van Rijn, R. M., Huisstede, B. M., Koes, B. W., & Burdorf, A. (2009). Associations between work-related factors and the carpal tunnel syndrome – A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 35(1), 19-36.

Vasiliadis, H. S., Georgoulas, P., Shrier, I., Salanti, G., & Scholten, R. J. (2014). Endoscopic release for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014(1), CD008265. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008265.pub2

Walker, F. O., Cartwright, M. S., Blocker, J. N., Arcury, T. A., Suk, J. I., Chen, H., … Quandt, S. A. (2013). Prevalence of bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries and their association with carpal tunnel syndrome in a sample of Latino poultry processors and other manual workers. Muscle & Nerve, 48(4), 539-544. doi:10.1002/mus.23797

Wang, Y., Zhao, C., Passe, S. M., Filius, A., Thoreson, A. R., An, K. N., & Amadio, P. C. (2014). Transverse ultrasound assessment of median nerve deformation and displacement in the human carpal tunnel during wrist movements. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 40(1), 53-61. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.09.009

Watson, J. C. (2012). The electrodiagnostic approach to carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurologic Clinics, 30(2), 457-478. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2011.12.001

Werner, R. A., & Andary, M. (2002). Carpal tunnel syndrome: Pathophysiology and clinical neurophysiology. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113(9), 1373-1381. doi:S1388245702001694 [pii]

Werner, R. A., & Andary, M. (2011). Electrodiagnostic evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve, 44(4), 597-607. doi:10.1002/mus.22208

Yen, W. J., Kuo, Y. L., Kuo, L. C., Chen, S. M., Kuan, T. S., & Hsu, H. Y. (2014). Precision pinch performance in patients with sensory deficits of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel. Motor Control, 18(1), 29-43. doi:10.1123/mc.2013-0004

Yerdelen, D., Ertorer, E., & Koc, F. (2010). The effects of hypothyroidism on strength-duration properties of peripheral nerve. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 294(1-2), 89-91. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2010.03.026

Yii, N. W., & Elliot, D. (1994). A study of the dynamic relationship of the lumbrical muscles and the carpal tunnel. The Journal of Hand Surgery (British & European Volume), 19(4), 439-443.

Yildiz, N., Atalay, N. S., Gungen, G. O., Sanal, E., Akkaya, N., & Topuz, O. (2011). Comparison of ultrasound and ketoprofen phonophoresis in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 24(1), 39-47. doi:10.3233/BMR-2011-0273

Yoshii, Y., Ishii, T., Tung, W. L., Sakai, S., & Amadio, P. C. (2013). Median nerve deformation and displacement in the carpal tunnel during finger motion. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 31(12), 1876-1880. doi:10.1002/jor.22462

Zieske, L., Ebersole, G. C., Davidge, K., Fox, I., & Mackinnon, S. E. (2013). Revision carpal tunnel surgery: A 10-year review of intraoperative findings and outcomes. The Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume), 38(8), 1530-1539. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.04.024