Dental References

CE Express Course References

Managing the Adult Dental Phobic Patient, 2nd Edition

Andersson, P., Hakeberg, M., & Abrahamsson, K. H. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Dental Hygienist Anxiety Scale in a group of general dental patients. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 71(3/4), 877-882.

Armfield, J. M., & Heaton, L. J. (2013). Management of fear and anxiety in the dental clinic: A review. Australian Dental Journal, 58(4), 390-407.

Berggren, U. (2001). Long-term management of the fearful adult patient using behavior modification and other modalities. Journal of Dental Education, 65(12), 1357-1368.

Boyle, C., & Craig, D. (2012). Using conscious sedation for dental anxiety. Dental Nursing, 8(1), 14-18.

Charon, R., & Charon, C. (2014). Management of dental fear, anxiety and phobia. Dental Nursing, 10(7), 378-383.

Darby, M. L., & Walsh, M. (2015). Dental hygiene: Theory and practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Locker, D., Liddell, A., & Shapiro, D. (1999). Diagnostic categories of dental anxiety: A population-based study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37(1), 25-37.

Logothetis, D. D. (2012). Local anesthesia for the dental hygienist. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Ma, W., Liu, Y., Chen, Y., Lane, H., Lai, T., & Huang, L. (2013). Evaluation of psychometric properties of the Chinese Mandarin version State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y form in Taiwanese outpatients with anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 20(6), 499-507.

MacLeavey, C. (2013). The role of dental therapists in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of anxious and phobic patients. SAAD Digest, 29, 64-69.

MedlinePlus. (2016). Phobias. Retrieved from

Oliveira, M. A., Bendo, C. B., Paiva, S. M., Vale, M. P., & Serra-Negra, J. M. (2015). Determining cut-off points for the Dental Fear Survey. Scientific World Journal, 2015, 1-7.

Oosterink, F. M., de Jongh, A., & Hoogstraten, J. (2009). Prevalence of dental fear and phobia relative to other fear and phobia subtypes. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 117(2), 135-143.

Prabhat, K. C., Maheshwari, S., Verman, S. K., Gupta, N. D., Balamani, A., Khan, M. T., & Singh, R. K. (2014). Dental anxiety and pain perception associated with the use of miniscrew implants for orthodontic anchorage. The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society, 48(3), 163-167.

Rayman, S., Dincer, E., & Almas, K. (2013, November). Managing dental fear and anxiety. New York State Dental Journal, 79(6), 25-29. Retrieved from

Rooney, Y., & Boyle, C. (2015). General anaesthesia and the role of the dental nurse. Dental Nursing, 11(7), 387-389.

Sghaireen, M. G., Zwiri, A. M. A., Alzoubi, I. A., Qodceih, S. M., & Al-Omiri, M. K. (2013). Anxiety due to dental treatment and procedures among university students and its correlation with their gender and field of study. International Journal of Dentistry, 2013, 647436. Retrieved from

Spindler, H., Staugaard, S. R., Nicolaisen, C., & Poulsen, R. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of cognitive-behavioral intervention on dental fear. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 75(1), 64-73.

Tickle, M., Milsom, K., Crawford, F. I. J., & Aggarwal, V. R. (2012). Predictors of pain associated with routing procedures performed in general dental practice. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 40(4), 343-350.

University of St. Andrews. (2016). Modified Dental Anxiety Scale Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from

Yeung, Y. (2013). Distraction techniques for anxious dental patients an arising field in analgesia for modern dentistry. SAAD Digest, 29, 82-87.