Occupational Therapy References

CE Express Course References

Therapeutic Exercise and the Older Adult


Addison, O., LaStayo, P. C., Dibble, L. E., & Marcus, R. L. (2011). Inflammation, aging, and adiposity: Implications for physical therapists. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 35(2), 86-94. doi:10.1519/JPT.0b013e3182312b14

Ahmed M. S., Matsumura B., & Cristian, A. (2005). Age-related changes in muscles and joints. Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 16(1), 19-39.

Ahren, B. (2013). Avoiding hypoglycemia: A key to success for glucose-lowering therapy in type 2 diabetes. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 9, 155-163. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S33934

Alnahdi, A. H., Zeni, J. A., & Snyder-Mackler, L. (2012). Muscle impairments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sports Health, 4(4), 284-292. doi:10.1177/194173811244572610.1177_1941738112445726 [pii]

American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). (2008). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (2nd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(6)625-683.

American Thoracic Society. (2002). ATS Statement: Guidelines for the six-minute walk test. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 166(1), 111-117.

Apostolopoulou, M., Savopoulos, C., Michalakis, K., Coppack, S., Dardavessis, T., & Hatzitolios, A. (2012). Age, weight and obesity. Maturitas, 71(2), 115-119. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.11.015

Atkins G. J., & Findlay D. M. (2012). Osteocyte regulation of bone mineral: A little give and take. Osteoporosis International, 23(8), 2067-2079. doi:10.1007/s00198-012-1915-z.

Audelin, M. C., Savage, P. D., Toth, M. J., Harvey-Berino, J., Schneider, D. J., Bunn, J. Y., … Ades, P. A. (2012). Change of energy expenditure from physical activity is the most powerful determinant of improved insulin sensitivity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease participating in an intensive lifestyle modification program. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 61(5), 672-679. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.10.001

Bacchi, E., Negri, C., Zanolin, M. E., Milanese, C., Faccioli, N., Trombetta, M., … Moghetti, P. (2012). Metabolic effects of aerobic training and resistance training in type 2 diabetic subjects: A randomized controlled trial (the RAED2 study). Diabetes Care, 35(4), 676-682. doi:dc11-1655 [pii]10.2337/dc11-1655

Barbat-Artigas, S., Filion, M. E., Dupontgand, S., Karelis, A. D., & Aubertin-Leheudre, M. (2011). Effects of tai chi training in dynapenic and nondynapenic postmenopausal women. Menopause, 18(9), 974-979. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3182127c89

Barbat-Artigas, S., Rolland, Y., Zamboni, M., & Aubertin-Leheudre, M. (2012). How to assess functional status: A new muscle quality index. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16(1), 67-77.

Barthuly, A. M., Bohannon, R. W., & Gorack, W. (2012). Gait speed is a responsive measure of physical performance for patients undergoing short-term rehabilitation. Gait & Posture, 36(1), 61-64. doi: S0966-6362(12)00007-0 [pii]10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.01.002

Barzilai, N., Huffman, D. M., Muzumdar, R. H., & Bartke, A. (2012). The critical role of metabolic pathways in aging. Diabetes, 61(6), 1315-1322. doi:10.2337/db11-1300

Beck, A. M., Damkjaer, K., & Beyer, N. (2008). Multifaceted nutritional intervention among nursing-home residents has a positive influence on nutrition and function. Nutrition, 24(11-12), 1073-1080. doi:S0899-9007(08)00218-9 [pii]10.1016/j.nut.2008.05.007

Benton, M. J., & Alexander, J. L. (2009). Validation of functional fitness tests as surrogates for strength measurement in frail, older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 88(7), 579-586.

Berg, K. O., Maki, B. E., Williams, J.I., Holliday, P., & Wood-Dauphinee, S. (1992). Clinical and laboratory measures of postural balance in an elderly population. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73(11), 1073-1080.

Bohannon, R. W. (2009). Dynamometer measurements of grip and knee extension strength: Are they indicative of overall limb and trunk muscle strength? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 108(2), 339-342.

Bohannon, R. W., & Andrews, A. W. (2011). Normal walking speed: A descriptive meta-analysis. Physiotherapy, 97(3), 182-189.

Bohannon, R. W., Peolsson, A., Massy-Westropp, N., Desrosiers, J., & Bear-Lehman, J. (2006). Reference values for adult grip strength measured with a Jamar dynamometer: A descriptive meta-analysis. Physiotherapy, 92(1), 11-15.

Booth, F. W., Laye, M. J., & Roberts, M. D. (2011). Lifetime sedentary living accelerates some aspects of secondary aging. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(5), 1497-1504. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00420.2011

Booth, F. W., & Zwetsloot, K. A. (2010). Basic concepts about genes, inactivity and aging. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(1), 1-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00972.x

Braden, H. J., Hilgenberg, S., Bohannon, R. W., Ko, M. S., & Hasson, S. (2012). Gait speed is limited but improves over the course of acute care physical therapyJournal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 35(3), 140-144. doi: 10.1519/JPT.0b013e31824baa1e

Breines, E.B. (2006). Therapeutic occupations and modalities. In H. M. Pendleton and W.Schultz-Krohn (Eds.), Pedretti’s Occupational Therapy: Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction (6th ed., pp. 658-686). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Brismee, J. M., Paige, R. L., Chyu, M. C., Boatright, J. D., Hagar, J. M., McCaleb, J. A., … Shen, C. L. (2007). Group and home-based tai chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(2), 99-111. doi: 21/2/99 [pii]10.1177/0269215506070505

Bruce-Brand, R. A., Walls, R. J., Ong, J. C., Emerson, B. S., O’Byrne, J. M., & Moyna, N. M. (2012). Effects of home-based resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 13, 118. doi:1471-2474-13-118 [pii]10.1186/1471-2474-13-118

Bruun, J. M., Helge, J. W., Richelsen, B., & Stallknecht, B. (2006). Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 290(5), E961-E967. doi:00506.2005 [pii]10.1152/ajpendo.00506.2005

Cao, J. J. (2011). Effects of obesity on bone metabolism. Journal of Orthopedic Surgery and Research, 6, 30. doi:10.1186/1749-799X-6-30.

Casanova, C., Celli, B. R., Barria, P., Casas, A., Cote, C., de Torres, J. P., … Aguirre-Jaime, A. (2011). The 6-min walk distance in healthy subjects: Reference standards from seven countries. European Respiratory Journal, 37(1), 150-156.

Cesari, M., Kritchevsky, S. B., Penninx, B. W., Nicklas, B. J., Simonsick, E. M., Newman, A. B., … Pahor, M. (2005). Prognostic value of usual gait speed in well-functioning older people – Results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53(10), 1675-1680. doi: JGS53501 [pii]10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53501.x

Cevasco, A. M., & Grant, R. E. (2003). Comparison of different methods for eliciting exercise-to-music for clients with Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(1), 41-56.

Chen, Y. S., Crowley, Z., Zhou, S., & Cartwright, C. (2012). Effects of 12-week Tai Chi training on soleus H-reflex and muscle strength in older adults: A pilot study. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(6), 2363-2368. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2182-y

Chester, J. G., & Rudolph, J. L. (2011). Vital signs in older patients: Age-related changesJournal of the American Medical Directors Association, 12(5), 337-343. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2010.04.009

Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., & Skinner, J. S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(7), 1510-1530. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c

Chou, C. H., Hwang, C. L., & Wu, Y. T. (2012). Effect of exercise on physical function, daily living activities, and quality of life in the frail older adults: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(2), 237-244. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.08.042

Colcombe, S. J., Erickson, K. I., Scalf, P. E., Kim, J. S., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., … Kramer, A. F. (2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Medical Science, 61(11), 1166-1170.

Concannon, L. G., Grierson, M. J., & Harrast, M. A. (2012). Exercise in the older adult: From the sedentary elderly to the masters athlete. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 4(11), 833-839. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.08.007

Cooper, R., Kuh, D., & Hardy, R. (2010). Objectively measured physical capability levels and mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 341, c4467.

Cotter, V. T. (2007). The burden of dementia. American Journal of Managed Care, 13(Suppl 8), S193-S197.

de Vries, N. M., van Ravensberg, C. D., Hobbelen, J. S., Olde Rikkert, M. G., Staal, J. B., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. (2012). Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults with impaired mobility, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity: A meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 11(1), 136-149. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.11.002

Donoghue, D., & Stokes, E. K. (2009). How much change is true change? The minimum detectable change of the Berg Balance Scale in elderly people. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41(5), 343-346.

Drexel, H., Saely, C. H., Langer, P., Loruenser, G., Marte, T., Risch, L., … Aczel, S. (2008). Metabolic and anti-inflammatory benefits of eccentric endurance exercise: A pilot study. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 38(4), 218-226. doi:ECI1937 [pii]10.1111/j.1365-2362.2008.01937.x

Drummond, M. J., Dickinson, J. M., Fry, C. S., Walker, D. K., Gundermann, D. M., Reidy, P. T., … Volpi, E. (2012). Bed rest impairs skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression, mTORC1 signaling, and protein synthesis in response to essential amino acids in older adults. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 302(9), E1113-E1122. doi:ajpendo.00603.2011 [pii]10.1152/ajpendo.00603.2011.

Duncan, P. W., Weiner, D.K., Chandler, J., & Studenski, S. (1990). Functional reach: A new clinical measure of balanceJournal of Gerontology, 45(6), 192-197.

Etnier, J. L., Nowell, P. M., Landers, D. M., & Sibley, B. A. (2006). A meta-regression to examine the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. Brain Research Reviews, 52(1), 119-136.

Ferry, M. (2005). Strategies for ensuring good hydration in the elderly. Nutrition Reviews, 63(6 Part 2), S22-S29.

Folland, J. P., Hawker, K., Leach, B., Little, T., & Jones, D. A. (2005). Strength training: Isometric training at a range of joint angles versus dynamic training. Journal of Sports Science, 23(8), 817-824.

Fontana, L. (2009). Modulating human aging and age-associated diseases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1790(10), 1133-1138. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2009.02.002

Forbes, S. C., Little, J. P., & Candow, D. G. (2012). Exercise and nutritional interventions for improving aging muscle health. [Review]. Endocrine, 42(1), 29-38. doi: 10.1007/s12020-012-9676-1

Franceschi, C., Bonafè, M., Valensin, S., Olivieri, F., De Luca, M., Ottaviani, E., & De Benedictis, G. (2000). Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immuno-senescence. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 908, 244-254.

French, H. P., Cusack, T., Brennan, A., Caffrey, A., Conroy, R., Cuddy, V., … McCarthy, G. M. (2013). Exercise and Manual Physiotherapy Arthritis Research Trial (EMPART) for osteoarthritis of the hip: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(2), 302-314. doi: S0003-9993(12)01018-0 [pii]10.1016/j.apmr.2012.09.030

Gault, M. L., Clements, R. E., & Willems, M. E. (2012). Cardiovascular responses during downhill treadmill walking at self-selected intensity in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 21(3), 335-347. doi: 2011-0320 [pii]

Gibbons, R. J., Balady, G. J., Bricker, J. T., Chaitman, B. R., Fletcher, G. F., Froelicher, V. F., … Smith, S. C., Jr. (2002). ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: Summary article: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1997 Exercise Testing Guidelines). Circulation, 106(14), 1883-1892.

Gielen, S., Adams, V., Mobius-Winkler, S., Linke, A., Erbs, S., Yu, J., … Hambrecht, R. (2003). Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 42(5), 861-868. doi:S0735109703008489 [pii]

Gillette Guyonnet, S., Abellan Van Kan, G., Alix, E., Andrieu, S., Belmin, J., Berrut, G., … Vellas, B. (2007). IANA (International Academy on Nutrition and Aging) Expert Group: Weight loss and Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 11(1), 38-48.

Goodpaster, B. H., Chomentowski, P., Ward, B. K., Rossi, A., Glynn, N. W., Delmonico, M. J., … Newman, A. B. (2008). Effects of physical activity on strength and skeletal muscle fat infiltration in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(5), 1498-1503. doi:90425.2008 [pii]10.1152/japplphysiol.90425.2008

Goodpaster, B. H., Park, S. W., Harris, T. B., Kritchevsky, S. B., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A. V., … Newman, A. B. (2006). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The health, aging and body composition study. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Medical Science, 61(10), 1059-1064. doi:61/10/1059 [pii]

Goodpaster, B. H., Thaete, F. L., & Kelley, D. E. (2000). Thigh adipose tissue distribution is associated with insulin resistance in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(4), 885-892.

Greiwe, J. S., Cheng, B., Rubin, D. C., Yarasheski, K. E., & Semenkovich, C. F. (2001). Resistance exercise decreases skeletal muscle tumor necrosis factor alpha in frail elderly humans. The FASEB Journal, 15(2), 475-482. doi:10.1096/fj.00-0274com15/2/475 [pii]

Gremeaux, V., Duclay, J., Deley, G., Philipp, J. L., Laroche, D., Pousson, M., & Casillas, J. M. (2010). Does eccentric endurance training improve walking capacity in patients with coronary artery disease? A randomized controlled pilot study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24(7), 590-599. doi:0269215510362322 [pii]10.1177/0269215510362322

Gunasekaran, U., & Gannon, M. (2011). Type 2 diabetes and the aging pancreatic beta cell. Aging, 3(6), 565-575.

Guralnik, J. M., Ferrucci, L., Pieper, C. F., Leveille, S. G., Markides, K. S., Ostir, G. V., … Wallace, R. B. (2000). Lower extremity function and subsequent disability: Consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Medical Science, 55(4), M221-M231.

Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., & Ekelund, U. (2012). Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet, 380(9838), 247-257. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1

Hardy, S. E., Perera, S., Roumani, Y. F., Chandler, J. M., & Studenski, S. A. (2007). Improvement in usual gait speed predicts better survival in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 55(11), 1727-1734. doi:JGS1413 [pii]10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01413.x

Hernandez, J. P., & Franke, W. D. (2005). Effects of a 6-mo endurance-training program on venous compliance and maximal lower body negative pressure in older men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(3), 1070-1077. doi:01169.2004 [pii]10.1152/japplphysiol.01169.2004

Heyn, P., Abreu, B. C., & Ottenbacher, K. J. (2004). The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(10), 1694-1704.

Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: Exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(1), 58-65.

Hilton, T. N., Tuttle, L. J., Bohnert, K. L., Mueller, M. J., & Sinacore, D. R. (2008). Excessive adipose tissue infiltration in skeletal muscle in individuals with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy: Association with performance and function. Physical Therapy, 88(11), 1336-1344. doi: ptj.20080079 [pii]10.2522/ptj.20080079

 Hogan, C. L. Mata, J., & Carstenson, L. L. (2013). Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 28(2), 587-594. doi:10.1037/a0032634.

Hotta, H., & Uchida, S. (2010). Aging of the autonomic nervous system and possible improvements in autonomic activity using somatic afferent stimulation. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 10(Suppl 1), S127-S136. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2010.00592.x

Howe, T. E., Shea, B., Dawson L. J., Downie, F., Murray, A., Ross C., … Creed, G. (2011). Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6), CD000333. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000333.pub2

Ivey, F. M., & Ryan, A. S. (2013). Resistive training improves insulin sensitivity after stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(2), 225-229. doi:S1052-3057(12)00441-7 [pii]10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2012.12.014

Jones, C. J., & Rikli, R. E. (2002). Measuring functional fitness of older adults. The Journal on Active Aging. March/April, 24-30.

Jones, C. J., Rikli, R. E., & Beam, W. C. (1999). A 30-s chair stand test as a measure of lower body strength in community-residing older adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(2), 113-119.

Juhakoski, R., Malmivaara, A., Lakka, T. A., Tenhonen, S., Hannila, M. L., & Arokoski, J. P. (2013). Determinants of pain and functioning in hip osteoarthritis: A two-year prospective study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 27(3), 281-287. doi:0269215512453060 [pii]10.1177/0269215512453060

Kelly, D. P. (2011). Cell biology: Ageing theories unified. Nature, 470(7334), 342-343. doi:10.1038/nature09896

Kendall, F. P. (1993). Manual muscle testing procedures. Retrieved from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/assets/docs/muscle_grading_and_testing_procedures.pdf

Killingsworth, A. P., & Pedretti, L. W. (2006a). Evaluation of muscle strength. In H. M. Pendleton and W. Schultz-Krohn (Eds.), Pedretti’s occupational therapy: Practice skills for physical dysfunction (6th ed., pp. 469-512). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Killingsworth, A. P., & Pedretti, L. W. (2006b). Joint range of motion. In H. M. Pendleton and W. Schultz-Krohn (Eds.), Pedretti’s occupational therapy: Practice skills for physical dysfunction (6th ed., pp. 437-468). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

King, M. B., Judge, J. O., Whipple, R., & Wolfson, L. (2000). Reliability and responsiveness of two physical performance measures examined in the context of a functional training intervention. Physical Therapy, 80(1), 8-16.

Kokkinos, P., Myers, J., Faselis, C., Panagiotakos, D. B., Doumas, M., Pittaras, A., … Fletcher, R. (2010). Exercise capacity and mortality in older men: A 20-year follow-up study. Circulation, 122(8), 790-797. doi: CIRCULATIONAHA.110.938852 [pii]10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.938852

Koopman, R., & van Loon, L. J. (2009). Aging, exercise, and muscle protein metabolism. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(6), 2040-2048. doi:91551.2008 [pii]10.1152/japplphysiol.91551.2008.

Kornetti, D. L., Fritz, S. L., Chiu, Y., Light K. E., & Velozo, C. A. (2004). Rating scale analysis of the Berg Balance Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(7), 1128-1135.

Kortebein, P., Ferrando, A., Lombeida, J., Wolfe, R., & Evans, W. J. (2007). Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(16), 1772-1774. doi:297/16/1772-a [pii]10.1001/jama.297.16.1772-b

Kortebein, P., Symons, T. B., Ferrando, A., Paddon-Jones, D., Ronsen, O., Protas, E., …. Evans, W. J. (2008). Functional impact of 10 days of bed rest in healthy older adults. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Medical Science, 63(10), 1076-1081. doi:63/10/1076 [pii]

Kruger, J., Carlson, S., & Buchner, D. (2007). How active are older Americans? Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(3), A53. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/jul/06_0094.htm

Lambers, S., Van Laethem, C., Van Acker, K., & Calders, P. (2008). Influence of combined exercise training on indices of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 22(6), 483-492. doi:22/6/483

Lambert, C. P., Wright, N. R., Finck, B. N., & Villareal, D. T. (2008). Exercise but not diet-induced weight loss decreases skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression in frail obese elderly persons. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(2), 473-478. doi:00006.2008 [pii]10.1152/japplphysiol.00006.2008

Lambert J. K., Zaidi M., & Mechanick, J. I. (2011). Male osteoporosis: Epidemiology and the pathogenesis of aging bone. Current Osteoporosis Reports, 9(4), 229-236. doi: 10.1007/s11914-011-0066-z

Lang, T., Cauley, J. A., Tylavsky, F., Bauer, D., Cummings, S., & Harris, T. B. (2010). Computed tomographic measurements of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation coefficient predict hip fracture: The health, aging, and body composition study. Journal of Bone Mineral Research, 25(3), 513-519. doi:10.1359/jbmr.090807

LaStayo, P. C., Ewy, G. A., Pierotti, D. D., Johns, R. K., & Lindstedt, S. (2003). The positive effects of negative work: Increased muscle strength and decreased fall risk in a frail elderly population. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Medical Science, 58(5), M419-M424.

LaStayo, P. C., Marcus, R. L., Dibble, L. E., Smith, S. B., & Beck, S. L. (2011). Eccentric exercise versus usual-care with older cancer survivors: The impact on muscle and mobility: An exploratory pilot study. BMC Geriatrics, 11, 5. doi:1471-2318-11-5 [pii]10.1186/1471-2318-11-5

Lee, I. M., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9

Leenders, M., Verdijk, L. B., van der Hoeven, L., van Kranenburg, J., Nilwik, R., & van Loon, L. J. (2013). Elderly men and women benefit equally from prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Medical Science, 68(7), 769-779. doi: gls241 [pii]10.1093/gerona/gls241

Liu, C. J., & Latham, N. K. (2009). Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3), CD002759. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002759.pub2

Liu, J., Baiqing, L., & Shnider, R. (2010). Effects of tai chi training on improving physical function in patients with coronary heart diseases. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 8(2), 78-84.

Loprinzi, P. D., & Cardinal, B. J. (2013). Association between biologic outcomes and objectively measured physical activity accumulated in ≥ 10-minute bouts and <10-minute bouts. American Journal of Health Promotion, 27(3), 143-151. doi:10.4278/ajhp.110916-QUAN-348.

Lusardi, M. M., Pellecchia, G. L., & Schulman, M. (2003). Functional performance in community living older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy 26(3), 14-22.

Maarbjerg, S. J., Sylow, L., & Richter, E. A. (2011). Current understanding of increased insulin sensitivity after exercise: Emerging candidates. Acta Physiologica, 202(3), 323-335. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02267.x

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