Physical Therapy References

CE Express Course References

Concussion Management - A Comprehensive Evidence Based Approach for the Physical Therapist

Alsalaheen, B., McClafferty, A., Haines, J., Smith, L., & Yorke, A. (2016). Reference values for the balance error scoring system in adolescents. Brain Injury, 30(7), 914-918. doi:10.3109/02699052.2016.1146965

Alsalaheen, B. A., Mucha, A., Morris, L. O., Whitney, S. L., Furman, J. M., Camiolo-Reddy, C. E., … Sparto, P. J. (2010). Vestibular rehabilitation for dizziness and balance disorders after concussion. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 34(2), 87-93. doi:10.1097/NPT.0b013e3181dde568

Alsalaheen, B. A., Whitney, S. L., Mucha, A., Morris, L. O., Furman, J. M., & Sparto, P. J. (2013). Exercise prescription patterns in patients treated with vestibular rehabilitation after concussion. Physiotherapy Research International, 18(2), 100-108. doi: 10.1002/pri.1532

Alshahrani, A., Johnson, E. G., & Cordett, T. K. (2014). Vertebral artery testing and differential diagnosis in dizzy patients. Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 1(1). Retrieved from

American Academy of Neurology. (1997). Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports (summary statement). Neurology, 48(3), 581-585.

American Physical Therapy Association. (APTA) (2016). Guide to physical therapist practice. Retrieved from

American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). (2017). Federal concussion management legislation. Retrieved from

Armistead-Jehle, P., Soble, J. R., Cooper, D. B., & Belanger, H. G. (2017). Unique aspects of traumatic brain injury in military and veteran populations. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 28(2), 323-337. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2016.12.008

Aubry, M., Cantu, R., Dvorak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., Johnston, K., Kelly J., … Concussion in Sport Group. (2002). Summary and agreement statement of the first international conference on concussion in sport, Vienna 2001. Recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who may suffer concussive injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(1), 6-10.

Bailes, J. E., Petraglia, A. L., Omalu, B. I., Nauman, E., & Talavage, T. (2013). Role of subconcussion in repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 119(5), 1235-1245. doi:10.3171/2013.7.JNS121822

Baker, J. G., Freitas, M. S., Leddy, J. J., Kozlowski, K. F., & Willer, B. S. (2012). Return to full functioning after graded exercise assessment and progressive exercise treatment of postconcussion syndrome. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, 2012, 705309. doi:10.1155/2012/705309

Barker-Collo, S., Jones, K., Theadom, A., Starkey, N., Dowell, A., McPherson, K., … BIONIC Research Group. (2015). Neuropsychological outcome and its correlates in the first year after adult mild traumatic brain injury: A population-based New Zealand study. Brain Injury, 29(13-14), 1604-1616. doi:10.3109/02699052.2015.10 75143

Barkhoudarian, G., Hovda, D. A., & Giza, C. C. (2016). The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury – an update. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 27(2), 373-393. doi:10.1016/j.pmr. 2016.01.003

Barlow, K., Marcil, L. D., Dewey, D., Carlson, H. L., MacMaster, F. P., Brooks, B. L., & Lebel, R. M. (2016). Cerebral perfusion changes in post-concussion syndrome: A prospective controlled cohort study. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(5), 996-1004. doi:10.1089/ neu.2016.4634

Batten, J., White, A. J., Anderson, E., & Bullingham, R. (2016). From management to prevention: The new cure for sports concussion. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(21). doi:bjsports-2015-095949

Bell, D. R., Guskiewicz, K. M., Clark, M. A., & Padua, D. A. (2011). Systematic review of the balance error scoring system. Sports Health, 3(3), 287-295.

Bhattacharyya, N., Gubbels, S. P., Schwartz, S. R., Edlow, J. A., El-Kashlan, H., Fife, T., … Corrigan, M. D. (2017). Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (update). Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 156(3Suppl), S1–S47.

Bigler, E. D., Abildskov, T. J., Goodrich- Hunsaker, N. J., Black, G., Christensen, Z. P., Huff, T., … Max J. E. (2016). Structural neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 24(3), e42-e52. doi:10.1097/JSA. 0000000000000119

British Journal of Sports Medicine. (2017). Sport concussion assessment tool – 5th edition. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-097506SCAT5

Broglio, S. P., Collins, M. W., Williams, R. M., Mucha, A, & Kontos, A. P. (2015). Current and emerging rehabilitation for concussion: A review of the evidence. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 34(2), 213-231. doi:10.1016/j. csm.2014.12.005

Broglio, S. P., Ferrara, M. S., Sopiarz, K., & Kelly, M. S. (2008). Reliable change of the sensory organization test. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18(2), 148-154. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e318164f42a

Broglio, S. P., Sosnoff, J. J., & Ferrara, M. S. (2009). The relationship of athlete-reported concussion symptoms and objective measures of neurocognitive function and postural control. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 19(5), 377-382. doi:10.1097/JSM. 0b013e3181b625fe

Bruce, D. A., Alavi, A., Bilaniuk, L., Dolinskas, C., Obrist, W., & Uzzell, B. (1981). Diffuse cerebral swelling following head injuries in children: The syndrome of “malignant brain edema.” Journal of Neurosurgery, 54, 170-178.

Bryan, M. A., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Comstock, R. D., Rivara, F., & Seattle Sports Concussion Research Collaborative. (2016). Sports- and recreation-related concussions in US youth. Pediatrics, 138(1), e20154635. doi:10.1542/ peds.2015-4635

Cantu, R. C. (1998). Second-impact syndrome. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 17(1), 37-44.

Cantu, R. C. (2001). Posttraumatic retrograde and anterograde amnesia: Pathophysiology and implications in grading and safe return to play. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 244-248.

Catena, R. D., van Donkelaar, P., & Chou, L. S. (2011). The effects of attention capacity on dynamic balance control following concussion. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 8, 8. doi:10.1186/1743- 0003-8-8

Cavanaugh, J. T., Guskiewicz, K. M., & Stergiou, N. (2005). A nonlinear dynamic approach for evaluating postural control: New direction for the management of sports related cerebral concussion. Sports Medicine, 35(11), 935-950.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). Measuring orthostatic blood pressure. Retrieved from pressure-a.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016). What can I do to help prevent traumatic brain injury? Retrieved from prevention.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). Getting answers about concussion. Retrieved from

Chiu, S. L., Osternig, L., & Chou, L. S. (2013). Concussion induces gait inter-joint variability under conditions of divided attention and obstacle crossing. Gait Posture, 38(4), 717- 722. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.03.010

Clausen, M., Pendergast, D. R., Willer, B., & Leddy, J. (2016). Cerebral blood flow during treadmill exercise is a marker of physiological postconcussion syndrome in female athletes. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31(3), 215-224. doi:10.1097/HTR.000000000 0000145

Clay, M. B., Glover, K. L., & Lowe, D. T. (2013). Epidemiology of concussion in sport: A literature review. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 12(4), 230-251. doi:10.1016/j.jcm. 2012.11.005

Collins, M. W., Kontos, A. P., Reynolds, E., Murawski, C. D., & Fu, F. H. (2014). A comprehensive, targeted approach to the clinical care of athletes following sport-related concussion. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 22(2), 235-246. doi:10.1007/ s00167-013-2791-6

Colorado Medical Society Sports Medicine Committee. (1991). Guidelines for the management of concussion in sports. Denver, CO: Medical Society.

Congress of Neurological Surgeons. (1966). Committee on Head Injury Nomenclature: Glossary of head injury. Clinical Neurosurgery, 12, 386–394.

Davis, G. (2015). Prolonged postconcussive rest is not superior to usual care. Journal of Pediatrics, 167(1), 209-210. doi:10.1016/j. jpeds.2015.04.088

Davis, G. A., Anderson, V., Babl, F. E., Gioia, G. A., Giza, C. C., Meehan, W., … Zemek, R. (2017). What is the difference in concussion management in children as compared with adults? A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(12), 949- 957. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-097415

DeMatteo, C., Stazyk, K., Giglia, L., Mahoney, W., Singh, S. K., Hollenberg, R., … Randall, S. (2015). A balanced protocol for return to school for children and youth following concussive injury. Clinical Pediatrics (Philadelphia), 54(8), 783-792. doi:10.1177/ 0009922814567305

Dispenza, F., De Stefano, A., Mathur, N., Croce, A., & Gallina, S. (2011). Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following whiplash injury: A myth or a reality? American Journal of Otolaryngology, 32(5), 376-380. doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2010.07.009

Doble, J. E., Feinberg, D. L., Rosner, M. S., & Rosner, A. J. (2010). Identification of binocular vision dysfunction (vertical heterophoria) in traumatic brain injury patients and effects of individualized prismatic Spectacle Lenses in the treatment of post-concussive symptoms: A retrospective analysis. PM & R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 2(4), 244-253. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.01.011

Domenech, M. A., Sizer, P. S., Dedrick, G. S., McGalliard, M. K., & Brismee, J. M. (2011). The deep neck flexor endurance test: Normative data scores in healthy adults. PM & R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 3(2), 105-110. doi:10.1016/j. pmrj.2010.10.023

Eisenberg, M. A., Meehan, W. P., III, & Mannix, R. (2014). Duration and course of post-concussion symptoms. Pediatrics, 132(1), 8-17. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-0158

Elbin, R. J., Kontos, A. P., Kegel, N., Johnson, E., Burkhart, S., & Schatz, P. (2013). Individualized and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence of separate norms. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(5), 476-484. doi:10.1093/ arclin/act024

Ellis, M. J., Cordingley, D., Vis, S., Reimer, K., Leiter, J., & Russell, K. (2015). Vestibuloocular dysfunction in pediatric sports-related concussion. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 16(3), 248-255. doi:10.3171/2015.1. PEDS14524

Ellis, M. J., Leddy, J. J., & Willer, B. (2015). Physiological, vestibulo-ocular and cervicogenic post-concussion disorders: An evidencebased classification system with directions for treatment. Brain Injury, 29(2), 238-248. doi:10.3109/02699052.2014.965207

Ellis, M. J., Leddy, J., & Willer, B. (2016). Multi-disciplinary management of athletes with post-concussion syndrome: An evolving pathophysiological approach. Frontiers in Neurology, 7, 136. doi:10.3389/fneur.2016. 00136

Ellis, M. J., Ryner, L. N., Sobczyk, O., Fierstra, J., Mikulis, D. J., Fisher, J. A., … Mutch, W. A. (2016). Neuroimaging assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in concussion: Current concepts, methodological considerations, and review of the literature. Frontiers in Neurology, 7, 61. doi:10.3389/fneur. 2016.00061

Fait, P., McFadyen, B. J., Swaine, B., & Cantin, J. F. (2009). Alterations to locomotor navigation in a complex environment at 7 and 30 days following a concussion in an elite athlete. Brain Injury, 23(4), 362-369. doi:10.1080/ 02699050902788485

Fait, P., Swaine, B., Cantin, J. F., Leblond, J., & McFadyen, B. J. (2013). Altered integrated locomotor and cognitive function in elite athletes 30 days postconcussion: A preliminary study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(4), 293-301. doi:10.1097/ HTR.0b013e3182407ace

Falla, D., Jull, G., Dall’Alba, P., Rainoldi, A., & Merletti, R. (2003). An electromyographic analysis of the deep cervical flexor muscles in performance of cranio-cervical flexion. Physical Therapy, 83(10), 899-906.

Falla, D., Jull, G., & Hodges, P. (2008). Training the cervical muscles with prescribed motor tasks does not change muscle activation during a functional activity. Manual Therapy, 13(6), 507-512. doi:10.1016/j.math.2007. 07.001

Falla, D., Jull, G., Russell, T., Vicenzino, B., & Hodges, P. (2007). Effect of neck exercise on sitting posture in patients with chronic neck pain. Physical Therapy, 87(4), 408- 417. doi:10.2522/ptj.20060009

Fife, T. D., & Giza, C. (2013). Posttraumatic vertigo and dizziness. Seminars in Neurology, 33(3), 238-243. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1354599

Gagnon, I., Galli, C., Friedman, D., Grilli, L., & Iverson, G. L. (2009). Active rehabilitation for children who are slow to recover following sports-related concussion. Brain Injury, 23(12), 956-964. doi:10.3109/0269 9050903373477

Gagnon, I., Grilli, L., Friedman, D., & Iverson, G. L. (2016). A pilot study of active rehabilitation for adolescents who are slow to recover from sports-related concussion. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26(3), 299-306. doi:10.1111/sms.12441

Gall, B., Parkhouse, W., & Goodman, D. (2004). Heart rate variability in recently concussed athletes at rest and exercises. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(8), 1269- 1274.

Gallaway, M., Scheiman, M., & Mitchell, G. L. (2016). Vision therapy for post-concussion vision disorders. Optometry and Vision Science, 94(1), 68-73. doi:10.1097/OPX.00000 00000000935

Gilchrist, J., Thomas, K. E., Xu, L., McGuire, L. C., & Coronado, V. (2011). Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries related to sports and recreation activities among persons aged ≤19 years—United States, 2001–2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(39), 1337–1342.

Giza, C. C., & Hovda, D. A. (2014). The new neurometabolic cascade of concussion. Neurosurgery, 75(Suppl 4), S24-S33. doi:10.1227/ NEU.0000000000000505

Giza, C. C., Kutcher, J. S., Ashwal, S., Barth, J., Getchius, T. S., Gioia, G. A., … Zafonte, R. (2013). Summary of evidence-based guideline update: evaluation and management of concussion in sports: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 80(24), 2250-2257. doi:10.1212/ WNL.0b013e31828d57dd

Gold, D. R., Morris, L., Kheradmand, A., & Schubert, M. C. (2014). Repositioning maneuvers for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 16(8), 307. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0307-4

Grabowski, P., Wilson, J., Walker, A., Enz, D., & Wang, S. (2017). Multimodal impairmentbased physical therapy for the treatment of patients with post-concussion syndrome: A retrospective analysis on safety and feasibility. Physical Therapy in Sport, 23, 22-30. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2016.06.001

Guskiewicz, K. M. (2001). Postural stability assessment following concussion: One piece of the puzzle. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 11(3), 182-189.

Guskiewicz, K. M., Bruce, S. L., Cantu, R. C., Ferrara, M. S., Kelly, J. P., McCrea, M., … Valovich McLeod, T. C. (2004). National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Management of sport-related concussion. Journal of Athletic Training, 39(3), 280-297.

Guskiewicz, K. M., Register-Mihalik, J., McCrory, P., McCrea, M., Johnston, K., Makdissi, M., … Meeuwisse, W. (2013). Evidenced based approach to revising the SCAT2: Introducing the SCAT 3. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(5), 2892- 2893. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092225

Hall, C. D., Herdman, S. J., Whitney, S. L., Cass, S. P., Clendaniel, R. A., Fife, T. D., … Woodhouse, S. N. (2016). Vestibular rehabilitation for peripheral vestibular hypofunction: An evidenced based clinical practice guideline. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 40(2), 124-155. doi:10.1097/NPT. 0000000000000120

Halstead, M. E. (2016). Pharmacologic therapies for pediatric concussions. Sports Health, 8(1), 50-52. doi:10.1177/1941738115622158

Halstead, M. E., McAvoy, K., Devore, C. D., Carl, R., Lee, M., & Logan, K. (2013). Returning to learning following a concussion. Pediatrics, 132(5), 948-957. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-2867

Harris, K. D., Heer, D. M., Roy, T. C., Santos, D. M., Whitman, J. M., & Wainner, R. S. (2005). Reliability of a measurement of neck flexor muscle endurance. Physical Therapy, 85(12), 1349-1355.

Henry, L. C., Elbin, R. J., Collins, M. W., Marchetti, G., & Kontos, A. P. (2016). Examining recovery trajectories after sportrelated concussion with a multimodal clinical assessment approach. Neurosurgery, 78(2), 232-241. doi:10.1227/NEU.00000000 00001041

Herdman, S. J., & Clendaniel, R. A. (2014). Vestibular rehabilitation (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

Herdman, S. J., & Whitney, S. L. (2007). Intervention for the patient with vestibular hypofunction. In S. J. Herdman (Ed.), Vestibular rehabilitation (3rd ed., pp. 309- 337). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

Hoffer, M. E., Gottshall, K. R., Moore, R., Balough, B. J., & Wester, D. (2004). Characterizing and treating dizziness after mild head trauma. Otology & Neurotology, 25(2), 135-138.

Hoffer, M. E., Schubert, M. C., & Balaban, C. D. (2015). Early diagnosis and treatment of traumatic vestibulopathy and postconcussive dizziness. Neurologic Clinics, 33(3), 661-668. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2015.04.004

Howell, D. R., Osternig, L. R., & Chou, L. S. (2013). Dual-task effect on gait balance control in adolescents with concussion. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(8), 1513-1520. doi 10.1016/j.apmr.2013. 04.015

Hutting, N., Scholten-Peeters, G. G., Vijverman, V., Keesenberg, M. D., & Verhagen, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic accuracy of upper cervical spine instability tests: A systematic review. Physical Therapy, 93(12), 1686- 1695. doi:10.2522/ptj.20130186

Hynes, L. M., & Dickey, J. P. (2009). Is there a relationship between whiplash-associated disorders and concussion in hockey? A preliminary study. Brain Injury, 20(2), 179-188.

Iqbal, Z. A., Rajan, R., Khan, S. A., & Alghadir, A. H. (2013). Effect of deep cervical flexor muscles training using pressure biofeedback on pain and disability of school teachers with neck pain. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(6), 657-661. doi:10.1589/jpts. 25.657

Iverson, G. L., & Koehle, M. S. (2013). Normative data for the modified balance error scoring system in adults. Brain Injury, 27(5), 596-599. doi:10.3109/02699052.2013.772237

Iverson, G. L., Lovell, M. R., & Collins, M. W. (2003). Interpreting change on ImPACT following sport concussion. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17(4), 460-467. doi:10.1076/ clin.17.4.460.27934

Iverson, G. L., Silverberg, N. D., Mannix, R., Maxwell, B. A., Atkins, J. E., Zafonte, R., & Berkner, P. D. (2015). Factors associated in concussion-like symptom reporting in high school athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association: Pediatrics, 169(12), 1132-1140. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015. 2374

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Jorgensen, R., Ris, I., Falla, D., & Juul- Kristensen, B. (2014). Reliability, construct and discriminative validity of clinical testing in subjects with and without chronic neck pain. BioMed Central Musculoskeletal Disorders, 15, 408. doi:10.1186/1471-2474- 15-408

Jull, G. A., Falla, D., Vicenzino, B., & Hodges, P. W. (2009). The effect of therapeutic exercise on activation of the deep cervical flexor muscles in people with chronic neck pain. Manual Therapy, 14(6), 696-701. doi:10. 1016/j.math.2009.05.004

Jull, G. A., O’Leary, S. P., & Falla, D. L. (2008). Clinical assessment of the deep cervical flexor muscles: The craniocervical flexion test. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 31(7), 525-533. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.08.003

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Kaale, B. R., Krakenes, J., Albrektsen, G., & Wester, K. (2008). Clinical assessment techniques for detecting ligament and membrane injuries in the upper cervical spine region: A comparison with MRU results. Manual Therapy, 13(5), 397-403.

Kim, J. Y., & Kwag, K. I. (2016). Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(1), 269-273. doi:10.1589/jpts.28.269

Kontos, A. P., Dolese, A., Elbin, R. J., Covassin, T., & Warren, B. L. (2011). Relationship of soccer heading to computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms among female and male youth soccer players. Brain Injury, 25(12), 1234-1241. doi:10.3109/0269 9052.2011.608209

Kontos, A. P., Elbin, R. J., Lau, B., Simensky, S., Freund, B., French, J., & Collins, M. W. (2013). Posttraumatic migraine as a predictor of recovery and cognitive impairment after sport-related concussion. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(7), 1497- 1504. doi:10.1177/0363546513488751

Kozlowski, K. F., Graham, J., Leddy, J. J., Devinney-Boymel, L., & Willer, B. S. (2013). Exercise intolerance for individuals with postconcussion syndrome. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(5), 627-635. doi:10.4085/1062- 6050-48.5.02

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Leddy, J. J., Baker, J. G., Merchant, A., Picano, J., Gaile, D., Matuszak, J., & Willer, B. (2015). Brain or strain? Symptoms alone do not distinguish physiologic concussion from cervical/vestibular injury. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25(3), 237-242. doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000128

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Leddy, J. J., Kozlowski, K., Donnelly, J. P., Pendergast, D. R., Epstein, L. H., & Willer, B. (2010). A preliminary study of subsymptom threshold exercise training for refractory post-concussion syndrome. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 20(1), 21-27. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181c6c22c

Leddy, J. J., Kozlowski, K., Fung, M., Pendergast, D. R., & Willer, B. (2007). Regulatory and autoregulatory physiological dysfunction as a primary characteristic of post concussion syndrome: Implications for treatment. NeuroRehabilitation, 22(3), 199-205.

Leddy, J. J., & Willer, B. (2013). Use of graded exercise testing in concussion and returnto- activity management. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 12(6), 370-376. doi:10. 1249/JSR.0000000000000008

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Lee, H., Sullivan, S. J., & Schneiders, A. G. (2013). The use of the dual-task paradigm in detecting gait performance deficits following a sports-related concussion: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16(1), 2-7. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2012.03.013

Lee, H. Y., Teng, C. C., Chai, H. M., & Wang, S. F. (2006). Test-retest reliability of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in three cardinal planes. Manual Therapy, 11(1), 61-68.

Lee, K. W., & Kim, W. H. (2016). Effect of thoracic manipulation and deep craniocervical flexor training on pain, mobility, strength, and disability of the neck of patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(1), 175-180. doi:10.1589/jpts.28.175

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