Respiratory References

CE Express Course References

Anthrax: A Bioterrorist Weapon, 2nd Edition

Alibek, K., & Handelman, S. (1999). Biohazard. New York, NY: Random House.

Anand, G. (2001). Mayo Clinic, unit of Roche develop rapid anthrax test. Retrieved from

Barakat, L. A., Quentzel, H. L., Jernigan, J. A., Kirschke, D. L., Griffith, K., Spear, S. M., … Hadler, J. L. (2002). Fatal inhalational anthrax in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(7), 863-868.

California Department of Public Health. (2012). Anthrax fact sheet. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Emergency preparedness and re-sponse: Bioterrorism overview. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013) Anthrax: Basics. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Anthrax: Treatment. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). CDC director releases after-action report on recent anthrax incident; highlights steps to improve laboratory quality and safety. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014c). Emergency preparedness and response: Facts about the Laboratory Response Network. Retrieved from

Ebrahimi, C. M., Kern, J. W., Sheen, T. R., Ebrahimi-Fardooee, M., van Sorge, N. M., Schneewind, O., & Doran, K. S. (2009). Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by Bacillus anthracis requires the pXO1 encoded BsIA protein. Journal of Bacteriology, 191(23), 7165-7173.

Grotton, F., & Shea, D. A. (2011). Congressional Research Service: Federal efforts to address the threat of bioterrorism: Selected issues and options for Congress. Retrieved from

Guillemin, J. (2006). Scientists and the history of biological weapons: A brief historical overview of the development of biological weapons in the twentieth century. EMBO Reports, 7(Spec No), S45-S49.

Hawley, R. J., & Eitzen, E. M., Jr. (2001). Biological weapons – A primer for microbiologists. Annual Review of Microbiology, 55, 235-253.

Henderson, D. A. (1999). The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science, 282, 1279-1282.

Kennedy, D. M. (Ed.). (2007). The Library of Congress World War II companion (p. 404). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Khardori, N. (Ed.). (2006). Bioterrorism preparedness: Medicine – Public health – Policy. Weinheim, DE: Wiley-VCH.

Kracalik, I., Malania, L., Tsertsvadze, N., Manvelyan, J., Bakanidze, L., Imnadze, P., … Blackburn, J. K. (2014). Human cutaneous anthrax, Georgia, 2010-2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(2), 261-264. doi: 10.3201/eid2002.130522

Kuehnert, M. J., Doyle, T. J., Hill, H. A., Bridges, C. B., Jernigan, J. A., … Jernigan, D. B. (2003). Clinical features that discriminate inhalational anthrax from other acute respiratory illnesses. Clinical Infectious Disease, 36, 328-336.

Lawhorn, D. B. (2002). Bioterrorism preparedness – Anthrax. Retrieved from

Malecki, J., Wiersma, S., Labinson, R., Kamel, L., Besnitz, E., DiFerdinando, G., … Stroube, R. (2001). Update: Investigation of bioterrorism- related anthrax and adverse events from antimicrobial prophylaxis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 973-976. Retrieved from

Mazumdar, S. (2009). Raxibacumab. mAbs, 1(6), 531-538.

Merrill, R., & Timmreck, T. (2006). Introduction to epidemiology (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Mitka, M. (2012). Anthrax detection. Journal of the American Medical Association, 308(18), 1849. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.14658.

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2015). Biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Retrieved from

New York State Department of Health. (1999). Basis statistics: About incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality – Statistics teaching tools. Retrieved from (2014). Robert Koch – Biographical. Retrieved from

Piehler, J. K. (Ed.) (2013). Encyclopedia of military science. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Primack, J. R., & von Hippel, F. (1974). Advice and dissent: Scientists in the political arena. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Rogers, P., Whitby, S., & Dando, M. (1999). Biological warfare against crops. Scientific American, June, 70-75.

Scanes, C. G., & Miranowski, J. A. (2004). Perspectives in world food and agriculture 2004, volume 1. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press.

Schneeman, A., & Manchester, M. (2009). Antitoxin antibodies in prophylaxis and treatment of inhalation anthrax. Future Microbiology, 4, 35-43.

Sprenkle, M. D., Griffith, J., Marinelli, W., Boyer, A. E., Quinn, C. P., Pesik, N. T., … Blaney, D. D. (2014). Lethal factor and anti-protective antigen IgG levels associated with inhalation anthrax, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(2), 310-314.

Stern, E. J., Uhde, K. B., Shadomy, S. V., & Messonnier, N. (2008). Conference report on public health and clinical guideline for anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), e1. doi: 10.3201/eid1404.070969

Stewart, P. (2015). U.S. army chief says no human error seen in anthrax mishap. Retrieved from

Swartz, M. N. (2001). Recognition and management of anthrax – An update. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(22), 1621-1626.

Takahashi, H., Keim, P., Kaufmann, A. F., Keys, C., Smith, K. L., Taniguchi, K., … Kurata, T. (2004). Bacillus anthracis bioterrorism incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(1). Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2013). News: HHS replenishes nation’s supply of anthrax antitoxin. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Justice. (2010). Amerithrax investigation summary. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of State, Archive. (n.d.). Foreign relations, 1969-1976, Volume E-2, documents on arms control, 1969- 1972: [461] Nov. 25 public papers of the presidents: 461 statement on chemical and biological defense policies and programs. November 25, 1969. Retrieved from

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). FDA news release: FDA approves raxibacumab to treat inhalational anthrax. Retrieved from

Vladan, R., Goran, B., & Larisa, J. (2012). A mathematical model of bioterrorist attack risk assessment. Journal of Bioterrorism and Biodefense, 2, 114. doi:10.4172/2157- 2526.1000114

Wheelis, M. (2002). Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(9).

World Health Organization. (2008). Anthrax in humans and animals (4th ed.). Retrieved from

Yassin, N. A., & Ahmad, A. M. (2012). Incidence and resistotyping of Bacillus subtilis isolated from Azadi Teaching Hospital in Duhok City, Iraq. Materia Sociomedica, 24(3) 194-197.